2014年4月29日 星期二

Want to Be More Creative? Take a Walk

Want to Be More Creative? Take a Walk

Getty Images
Phys Ed
Gretchen Reynolds on the science of fitness.
If you are unable to think of a catchy, creative way to present sales data or begin a newspaper column, take a walk. A brief stroll, even around your office, can significantly increase creativity, according to a handy new study.
Most of us have heard by now that exercise, including walking, generally improves thinking skills, both immediately and in the longer term. Multiple studies have shown that animals and people usually perform better after exercise on tests of memory and executive function, which is essentially the ability to make decisions and organize thoughts (although prolonged, intense exercise can cause brief mental fatigue — so don’t take a math test after a marathon).
Similarly, exercise has long been linked anecdotally to creativity. For millenniums, writers and artists have said that they develop their best ideas during a walk, although some of us also do our best procrastinating then.
But little science has supported the idea that exercise aids creativity.
So researchers at Stanford University recently decided to test that possibility, inspired, in part, by their own strolls. “My adviser and I would go for walks” to discuss thesis topics, said Marily Oppezzo, at the time a graduate student at Stanford. “And one day I thought: ‘Well, what about this? What about walking and whether it really has an effect on creativity?’”
With the enthusiastic support of her adviser, Daniel Schwartz, a professor in the Stanford Graduate School of Education, Dr. Oppezzo recruited a group of undergraduate students and set out to see if she could goose their creativity. Gathering her volunteers in a deliberately dull, unadorned room equipped with only a desk and (somewhat unusually) a treadmill, Dr. Oppezzo asked the students to sit and complete tests of creativity, which in psychological circles might involve tasks like rapidly coming up with alternative uses for common objects, such as a button. Then the participants walked on the treadmill, at an easy, self-selected pace that felt comfortable. The treadmill faced a blank wall. While walking, each student repeated the creativity tests, which required about eight minutes.
For almost every student, creativity increased substantially when they walked. Most were able to generate about 60 percent more uses for an object, and the ideas were both “novel and appropriate,” Dr. Oppezzo writes in her study, which was published this month in The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.
But the practical import of that finding would seem to be negligible, if creativity were to increase only while someone was walking. Most of us cannot conduct brainstorming sessions on treadmills. So Dr. Oppezzo next tested whether the effects lingered after a walk had ended. She had another group of students sit for two consecutive sessions of test-taking and subsequently walk for about eight minutes while tossing out ideas for object re-use, then sit and repeat the test.
Again, walking markedly improved people’s ability to generate creative ideas, even when they sat down after the walk. In that case, the volunteers who had walked produced significantly more and subjectively better ideas than in their pre-exercise testing period.
Finally, to examine another real-world implication of walking and creativity, Dr. Oppezzo moved portions of the experiment outdoors. “Most people would probably guess that walking outside should be much better for creativity” than pacing inside a drab office. But surprisingly, her study undermined that assumption. When volunteers strolled Stanford’s pleasant, leafy campus for about eight minutes, they generated more creative ideas than when they sat either inside or outside for the same length of time. But they were not noticeably more creative as a result of their plein-air walk than when they subsequently walked on an indoor treadmill, facing a blank wall.
“It really seems that it’s the walking that matters,” in terms of spurring creativity, Dr. Oppezzo said, and not the setting.
Just how a brief, casual stroll alters the various mental processes related to creativity remains unclear, Dr. Oppezzo added. “This is an acute effect,” she said, making it distinct from any long-term physiological changes that exercise might produce inside the human brain. “It may be that walking improves mood” as its primary effect, she said, and creativity blooms more easily within a buoyed-up mind.
Or walking may divert energy that otherwise would be devoted, intentionally or not, to damping down wild, creative thought, she said. “I think it’s possible that walking may allow the brain to break through” some of its own, hyper-rational filters, she said.
But those are only a few of many likely explanations, she said, adding that she would probably go for a walk later to help her come up with other plausible theories and inventive experiments through which to test them.

醫療疏失或藥物濫用的死亡率 (張慶麟EHS)

第一名都是 車禍
那麼 各位醫師
EHS是Environment, Health, Safety就是環境,健康,安全,常簡稱為環安。有良好的道德,才能長治久安。The long lasting peace could only be achieved by people with high level of moral.

2014年4月28日 星期一

杏仁控制血糖還能消腹部; 規律休息有益心臟/  “维生素B17“

個人的參考資訊 親友有時會傳些資訊

杏仁好處多 控制血糖還能消腹部



普 渡大學研究了137名有機會罹患第二型糖尿病的成年人,發現每天吃1.5盎司(約42公克)乾烤少鹽杏仁,可抑制受試者的胃口,控制血糖濃度,明顯改善吸 收維他命E及單元不飽和脂肪,而且即使每天都吃同樣份量,都不會導致體重增加。賓夕凡尼亞州立大學的研究更發現,吃杏仁有助減少腹部脂肪堆積,降低罹患高 血壓及糖尿病機會。(於慶中/綜合外電報導)

《中英對照讀新聞》Taking regular breaks from desk good for the heart 規律休息有益心臟 ◎國際新聞中心Taking lots of breaks from sitting at a desk is good for the waistline and heart health, research suggests. Even breaks as short as a minute - to stand up, move around or climb stairs - are of benefit, says a study.研究顯示,離開桌子多休息,對腰圍與心臟健康有益。一份研究說,即使是短如一分鐘的休息,站起來走走或爬樓梯,都會有好處。The European Heart Journal report adds further weight to evidence that sitting for long periods can be bad for health. Experts found those who sat down for long periods without getting up had a larger waist circumference and lower levels of good HDL cholesterol.這份刊登在《歐洲心臟期刊》的報導,為坐太久可能有害健康增添證據。專家發現,長時間坐著而沒有起身的人,腰圍較粗、好膽固醇值也較低。Lead researcher Dr Genevieve Healy, of The University of Queensland, Australia, said: "Our research showed that even small changes, which could be as little as standing up for one minute, might help to lower this health risk. "領導研究的澳洲昆士蘭大學哈利博士表示:「我們的研究顯示,即使是小如起立一分鐘的小幅改變,可能有助降低健康風險。」"It is likely that regular breaks in prolonged sitting time could be readily incorporated into the working environment without any detrimental impact on productivity, although this still needs to be determined by further research."「長時間坐著的職場環境或許可以輕易地納入規律的休息,而且不會對生產力造成任何影響,雖然這仍需要透過進一步的研究證明。」

  “维生素B17“并非B族维生素(因为它的任何组成部分都不能作为辅酶)。它在化学上是两种糖分子,即苯甲醛(benzaldehyde)和氰化物 (cyanide)的化合物,名为苦杏仁苷; 作为药剂,又称做Nitrilosides; 取自于杏仁; 在啤酒酵母中没有这种苦杏仁苷;美国大多数的州政府不承认这是治疗癌症的药物(有25个州法定承认)。美国食品及药物管理局不承认的原因是因其含有氰化物而可能有毒性。




对癌病的抵抗力有减弱的可能性。   富含苦杏仁苷的食物   杏、苹果、樱桃、桃、李、油桃(nectarines)等的果核中含有苦杏仁苷。




摄取过量的苦杏仁苷(Laetrile)却可能有危险。虽然一次服用3.0g以上,也可安全地消化,但是最好还是分次少量服用,一次不要超过1.0g以上。   根据《营养年鉴》,若每天将5-30个杏仁分次食用的话(绝对不要一次全部吃完),可以得到足够的苦杏仁苷。


想以苦杏仁苷来预防或治疗癌症的人一定要先和营养医师商量;   现在关于苦杏仁苷(Laetrile)的书也出了不少。我建议,在摄取之前对有关的知识稍加涉 猎,而且不要忘记和医师商量一下。 如果患有癌症,最重要的就是要在短期内尽可能摄取到最大量的苦杏仁苷。这可以在一般正常的治疗后进行,再加上辅助疗法,比如:补血、控制血压或减轻疼痛 等。克雷布斯Dr. Krebs博士建议成人每日10粒来预防癌症,每日30-50粒为癌症病人的营养补充品。少数癌症病人吃了苦杏仁会有恶心反应,建议减少食用量,让身体适应后再渐渐增加份量。 实质上对于一种药食兼用食品,进食不过量,有百宜而无一害!


宏萨族九百多年来没有一个癌症病例,他们每天自天然食物中摄取到大约 50~75 毫克的VB17。其所居住的地方历来就被称为杏子王国,每到杏子季节,宏萨人连吃三个月的杏子,其它时间则吃杏子果干。他们不光只吃果肉,而是连果仁一块 吃,所以每日摄取量超过 50~75 毫克。反观西方国家的人一年都还吃不到这个量呢!以至于逐渐发展成严重的苦杏仁苷缺乏症。由于饮食里缺乏这种抗癌变的苦杏仁苷,西方社会每三个家庭就有一 个人得癌症。   世界唯一一个无癌国家 - 斐济 ,也因主食杏制品而获益!   1950年代,生化学家小恩斯特?克雷布斯Ernst T. Krebs, Jr.分离出一个新的维生素B17,又称为Laetrile、amygdalin。他当时不清楚自己掀起了什么样的涟漪,虽然至今许多人仍相信克雷布斯找 到了癌症的疗法。然而国际大制药厂因为无法申请专利,垄断维生素B17的作用,故而对VitB17发起了恶毒攻击宣传,即使事实证明它对于各种癌症有疗 效。 维生素 B17是一种水溶性、醣化合物,存在于自然界约800种的植物中。含丰富VitB17最常见于非柑橘属水果的种子中,如:樱桃、油桃、桃子、李子及苹果 等,而以杏子apricot 的种子含量最丰,约有2~2.5%。   克雷布斯自杏果种仁分离出维生素B17,将之合成结晶以供人体使用,并命名为「利而卓 Laetrile」。此化合物是由一分子氰化氢(hydrogen cyanide)结合一分子具止痛作用的苯乙醛benzadehyde加两分子葡萄糖所形成的。虽然前两者分开来的毒性很强,但是它们结合在VitB17 的分子确十分稳定且无毒性。克氏发现,要将两者结合键打开,只有一种叫beta-glucosidase的葡萄糖酵素;这种酵素虽然分布于人体,但是在肿 瘤处却是含量特别高。所以癌细胞所分泌的beta-glucosidase酵素一旦打破了VitB17的结合键,释放出氰化氢及苯乙醛,两者毒分子加在一 起毒性更是超强,癌细胞就死在它们自己选择的VitB17手中 另一种健康细胞所分泌的酵素rhodanese扮演下半场的主角,它的分布恰恰与beta-glucosidase相反;rhodanese布满在全身正 常细胞,却不在肿瘤细胞。所以若VitB17遇到健康的细胞,健康细胞所分泌的rhodanese可以化解氰化氢的毒性,氧化氢及苯乙醛,此二者的副产物 分别是thiocyanate 和安息香酸benzoic acid,它们可以滋补正常细胞,多余的则排出尿中。 以上两段说明了VitB17可以准确瞄准癌细胞,而不会破坏正常的组织。这种以标的物为准头的天然化合物,其作用比任何人造的、无选择性、好坏细胞一起杀 的、超毒的化疗药物要来的有效。

克雷布斯Dr. Krebs博士建議成人每日10粒來預防癌症,每日30-50為癌症病人的營養補充品。少數癌症病人吃了杏仁會有噁心反應,診療中心建議減少食用量,讓身體適應後再漸漸增加份量。並非所有的杏仁都有效,必須是帶點苦味,才表示確實含有VitB17,例如中藥中的北杏即含有B17
其他含豐富VitB17的有:桃子種仁、蘋果種籽、美國棗子種仁、李子種仁、櫻桃種仁、及油桃種仁。其他含有B17的食物還包括:小米millet、蕎麥buckwhear夏威夷豆macadamianuts、竹筍、綠豆、利馬豆、青豆、某些品種的豌豆等等。如果無法買到酵素,可由我們日常的食物中攝取。食物中含有胰島酵素的有木瓜及鳳梨。 癌症病人最好每天食用木瓜及半個鳳梨。
由於飲食中缺乏這種抗癌變的 VitB17,我們的社會每三個家庭就有一個人得癌症。而實際上的發生率可能更高,原因是等到癌症能被測出來,該病人其實罹癌已經很久了;也有很多病人身上早有癌症,但是在它長到被測出來之前,病人死於意外或其他因素。
防癌的營養素 - 維生素 B17
維生素B17是防癌的第二道防線。根據美國舊金山的克萊博士 (Dr.Ernst Krebs)控制癌症的理論研究,癌症可以看做是一種多元缺乏症(deficiency disease),癌症患者多數缺乏兩種營養素:消化蛋白質的胰酵素和維生素B17 .維生素B17只對癌細胞具有毒性,會選擇破壞癌細胞,而對正常的組織則不會造成傷害,維生素B17最好食物來源計有 : 綠豆、皇帝豆、洋扁豆、桃、李、杏、櫻桃、蘋果等,而其中又以綠豆芽及洋扁豆維生素B17的最佳來源。

Investigations Into the South Korea Ferry Disaster Reveal a Litany of Errors

Investigations Into the South Korea Ferry Disaster Reveal a Litany of Errors

South Korean Ferry
A vessel involved in salvage operations passes near the upturned South Korean ferry Sewol in the sea off Jindo April 17, 2014. Kim Kyung-Hoon—Reuters

Prosecutors have raided the offices and home of the Sewol's reclusive owner, seeking answers to a tragedy that has so far claimed 171 lives, many of them schoolchildren, while divers search for still-missing passengers

The owner of the South Korean ferry that capsized last week with the loss of scores of lives is facing increased scrutiny, with investigators discovering that the vessel was overloaded, had recently been modified and was possibly crewed by insufficiently trained personnel.
The Wall Street Journal reports that the Sewol was loaded with 3,608 tons of cargo on its final journey — over three times more than the maximum recommended weight of 987 tons.
After acquiring the Sewol in 2012, operators Chonghaejin Marine Co. added 240 additional cabins, increasing passenger capacity by more than 150 people but also raising the vessel’s weight by almost 240 tons. It has also been established that the ferry was being operated despite a request made by the captain on April 1 for repairs to the steering gear.
The Sewol began listing sharply at around 9 a.m. last Wednesday, after making a sharp turn just outside Jindo Island, on its way from the city of Incheon to the resort island of Jeju. Within two hours, the ship — carrying 476 passengers, the majority of which were high school students going on a field trip — was submerged. Besides the 174 passengers rescued on the first day, no survivors have been found. The confirmed death toll hit at least 171 on Thursday, and the remaining missing passengers are feared dead.
On Wednesday, prosecutors raided the office and residence of Chonghaejin’s owner, Yoo Byung-eun, as well as premises belonging to his company’s affiliates and an evangelical church in which he is believed to have an interest. Known as the “millionaire with no face” because of his rare public appearances, Yoo is a notorious figure in South Korea, having been jailed for fraud for four years in the early 1990s and previously leading a religious cult. In 1987, over 30 people from his sect committed mass suicide, but prosecutors found no evidence against Yoo.
According to Chonghaejin’s audit report for last year, the company spent just $521 on crew training, including evacuation drills. By comparison, a competitor, Daea Express Shipping, spent 20 times that amount.
Among the 29 crew members on board the Sewol on its ill-fated journey, 20 people, including the captain, have been arrested or detained on charges of negligence and abandoning the passengers. Although crew members claimed that it was impossible to launch lifeboats while the Sewol was sinking, photos show a coast-guard officer managing the task during the initial rescue efforts. It has also emerged that the first distress call to authorities came from a student on board, not a member of the crew and that the 25-year-old third officer who was at the helm when the incident happened had never commanded the ship on this particularly dangerous stretch before.
Meanwhile, divers are making a concerted push to recover more bodies from the vessel in advance of adverse weather expected on Friday. Three large cranes are positioned near the scene, but a salvage operation of the 6,825-ton ferry is on hold until relatives of the missing passengers give their consent.
The tragedy is the worst maritime disaster in over two decades in South Korea and has evoked sympathy from all over the world — even from the country’s longtime nemesis North Korea. A spokeswoman for the South Korean Unification Ministry quoted a message from Pyongyang, which said “We express condolences for the missing and dead, including young students, from the sinking of the Sewol.”
Son Byoung-gi, a lawyer representing Chonghaejin Marine Co., has said the company will announce its position after the investigation is completed, adding that “if there is any legal responsibility, the owners are willing to offer their wealth and assets to help compensate the [families of the] victims.”

2014年4月27日 星期日


Subject: 養血管~血管內皮的壽命 等於人的壽命

Howard Walter











黃達夫說,相關研究顯示,一千名接受正子攝影者中,只有三人真正罹癌,其他人不是偽陽性,就是全無徵兆。正子攝影應用於追蹤確定罹癌者癌細胞是否轉移,而不應作為癌症篩檢工具。 ( PET scan: for cancer staging,and followup after treatments; NOT for screening!)






Syllabification: stag·ing
Pronunciation: /ˈstājiNG


  • 1An instance or method of presenting a play or other dramatic performance: one of the better stagings of this Shakesperean classic the quality of staging and design
  • 1.1An instance of organizing a public event or protest: the fourteenth staging of the championships
  • 2A stage or set of stages or temporary platforms arranged as a support for performers or between different levels of scaffolding.
  • 3 Medicine Diagnosis or classification of the particular stage reached by a progressive disease.
    More example sentences
    • The reference standard test for diagnosis and staging of endometriosis is laparoscopy or laparotomy with biopsy.
    • In staff training, the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and correct staging of disease are strongly emphasised.
    • Accurate radiological staging of the disease allows for appropriate clinical decision making and ensures that surgery is limited to those patients who will benefit.

Michael Rogers在中國誤食瘦肉精被取消日本杯公路單車賽成績


邁克爾·羅傑斯(Michael Rogers)是奧運會銅牌得主;2013年10月,他在日本杯公路單車賽(Japan Cup Cycle Road Race)中獲勝,但卻因鹽酸克侖特羅(中文又稱瘦肉精)檢測結果呈陽性被取消了比賽成績。這種藥物能提高脂肪燃燒率,有利於肌肉的形成。它雖然不合法, 但中國等國的農民卻經常用它來餵豬喂牛,以獲得更多瘦肉。
  • 檢視大圖 單車賽選手邁克爾·羅傑斯。
    Christophe Karaba/European Pressphoto Agency
國際單車聯盟(International Cycling Union,其法語簡稱為UCI)周三表示,取消羅傑斯前述比賽成績的決定仍然有效,但他不會受到任何進一步的懲罰,因為「很有可能,檢出瘦肉精是因為他食用了中國的受污染肉食」。
此前,身為Tinkoff-Saxo隊成員的羅傑斯曾辯稱,葯檢呈陽性是因為他在環北京職業公路單車賽(Tour of Beijing,簡稱環京賽)期間食用了某種東西。環京賽是在日本杯前夕舉行的分段賽。
為 了備辦未受污染的食物,主辦方似乎進行了大量努力,但有傳言稱,就連檢測人員自己的瘦肉精檢測結果也呈陽性。酒店所有食物都是賽事主辦方提供的(以自助餐 的形式),但所有人都在擔心食物污染的問題。許多運動員從頭到尾只吃炒飯,因為炒飯似乎是最安全的食物,但是,即便是炒飯里也有豬肉和雞蛋,誰知道還有什 麼其他東西。
UCI宣布裁決結果後,羅傑斯在接受RIDE Cycling Review的採訪時表示,希望自己的例子能提醒人們注意「在已知存在問題的國家吃肉的危險」。
環法單車賽(Tour de France)冠軍、羅傑斯的隊友阿爾伯托·康塔多(Alberto Contador)稱,自己2010年瘦肉精檢測陽性是 因為吃了西班牙的受污染牛排。瑞士國際體育仲裁法庭(Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne)裁定他的說法沒有根據。康塔多被取消了2010年環法賽和2011年環意大利單車賽(Giro d』Italia)的冠軍,2012年8月才結束禁賽重返賽場。
王霜舟(Austin Ramzy)是《紐約時報》記者。

2014年4月26日 星期六


喝咖啡 糖尿病風險降11%


領導該研究的中國裔博士胡炳長(Frank Hu)說:「咖啡攝取量的改變,似乎能在相對短的時間影響罹糖尿病機率。」


但英國學者艾略特(Richard Elliott)指出,即使研究顯示咖啡攝取量高可減少罹患糖尿病的風險,但不代表咖啡是唯一因素,可能還有其他要素未被發現,要避免罹患糖尿病的最好做法就是吃得健康、生活作息正常。

2014年4月24日 星期四


先不談林義雄先生說的,安檢是國民黨騙人民的把戲; "通過安檢"意思是遙遙無期,每年還可以增加預算,收回扣.......

我可以補充兩個故事。十幾年前,陳前總統要"凍結"核四之後, 我去台電訓練所做員工訓練,學員有些是核電的人,他們"都"認為,核四的國內供應商,根本無法合乎規格地交出得標的產品,所以凍結是解套......(之後10年,一些改規格等方式都曝光......)。另外,我前年看到核四公關等帶人參觀"燃料棒安放處",以示安全無虞......不巧的是,畫面顯示廠的牆壁油漆脫落了,這表示該廠是年久失修......連油漆都搞不好,談得上核安嗎?.....


A: 一個電力公司在選擇各種電廠發電時,基本是看固定成本,像電廠硬體和燃料成本,全世界核電的固定成本跟燃料成本均遠高過於其他發電成本的。美國能源部每年 公布美國104部核能發電機的成本,有這些成本圖像,電力公司可選擇哪些機組發電,發電總價會最低,但是台電不是,他不管什麼機組,都是讓核電廠百分之百 發電,除一除每度電價當然便宜;其他機組則配合核能,台灣逾20%其他發電方式的發電機組發電都是零,除一除,電價當然無窮大。再好的電廠電發得少,每度 成本當然貴。所以台灣電價是台電要它貴就貴,要它便宜就便宜,只是台電一種算帳辦法。
A: 吹牛一百遍,最後大家都相信了。 有些記者打電話給我,當我講到核電最貴時,他們還說:不可能。我真的很驚奇,這些數據都查得出來。像美國煤跟天然氣大概一度美金3分錢,核電一度美金1毛 3,差4倍。未來,天然氣價格一定是往下走,因美俄都發現大量天然氣,可是台電買的天然氣卻是最貴的。政府各部會都被核能控制,這是腐敗。
台綜院、中華經濟研究院跟經濟部還說,不用核電就會經濟委靡、電價上漲,完全是台電轉移焦點的說法,這些官員講這種話要負責,否則以後走了,問題都丟給後面 人。台灣如果沒核電,不是今天這種局面。像現在不管核四是否續建,用過核燃料棒都丟不掉,非常危險。現在還要增加危險蓋核四,總統說會逐漸減核,根本沒 有。
台灣核電廠只耐震7級,是中華民國政府批准的,等於發生大地震,台電毫無責任。當年總統府資政李國鼎反對核電,要我遊說台電,我們跟當時台電董事長陳蘭皋 談,陳蘭皋最後說:「若不建核四,缺電誰負責?」當時的經濟部長趙耀東說:「我負責!」後來停建核四。從他之後再也沒有這樣的官員。可是現在,如果發生核 災,馬總統只能講「我痛心啊!」能做什麼?人民生命財產可以這樣拿來賭嗎?大法官是不是該解釋一下,這有沒有犯法?
我當年念台大電機系,後來留美 拿到博士。我曾回台電工作,但台電不需要博士,只要聽話的人,所以我回美國教書。1978年,獲得美國電機電子工程學會IEEE院士,德州電力系統是根據 我的想法做的,也曾跟紐約電力公司合作25年,擔任全球數百個電力公司顧問。我的一生就是電。
我對台灣感情很深,多年來,一直努力講這些真相,可 是沒成功。這次看到台灣民眾對核電開始懷疑,而我這種奮鬥幾十年的人,再不站出來,將來會後悔。那天我看到電視上有名嘴對再生能源胡說八道,台電人都講謊 話。我再也按捺不住要回來盡點力。我的學生說台灣危險,但我82歲了,還怕什麼。
A:台灣電太多了,才會超過兩成機組發電是零。且台電為省一個電壓器,採用open delta的變壓器系統,結果製造電壓不平衡,使馬達用戶浪費能源,浪費這麼多電,哪有資格漲電價?台電應把丟掉的電撿回來,再談要不要蓋電廠。全世界沒有電力公司不改進丟電,拚命在蓋電廠的。改善丟電,台灣不需要核電廠。



Uriel Sinai for The New York Times

  • 檢視大圖一名失蹤乘客的母親讓失蹤人員的另一名親屬看自己女兒的照片。大多數失蹤乘客是來自檀園高中的學生。
    Jean Chung for The New York Times
除此之外,一直在猛烈批評船員的韓國總統朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)也指出,監管機構對航運商的縱容可能在一定程度上導致了這場災難,這是韓國和平時期最慘痛的災難之一。與此同時,韓國總理列出了一些本可以通過更好監管得到解決的具體問題,比如公司涉嫌為增加卧艙數目對渡輪進行了改造,由此導致渡輪頭重腳輕,容易傾覆。
韓國主要報紙反映了越來越強烈的憤怒及震驚情緒,針對的則是它們所稱的監管乏力。《中央日報》(JoongAng)一篇社論的標題是,「我們是一個安全社會還是三流民族?」(Are we a safe society or a third-rate people)《東亞日報》(Dong-A)則發表了一篇題為「哭泣吧,韓國」(Cry Korea)的社論,文章認為,朴槿惠應該信守競選承諾,打造一個「注重安全的政府」。
1993年,韓亞航空公司(Asiana Airlines)的一架飛機撞上一座小山,導致68名乘客死亡,那座小山距離渡輪事故發生地不遠。同年晚些時候,一艘超載的渡輪沉沒,致使292人遇難。1994年,首爾的一座大橋倒塌,導致32人死亡。1995年,101人在瓦斯爆炸事件中遇難。同年,首爾一家百貨商店的店主違反建築安全規範,在屋頂增建游泳池,最終導致受損的建築發生倒塌,501人因此喪命。兩年後,大韓航空(Korean Airlines)的一架飛機在關島墜毀,致使228人遇難。
韓國美國商會(American Chamber of Commerce in Korea)會員、《在韓國經商》(Doing Business in Korea)一書的作者托馬斯·L·科伊納(Thomas L. Coyner)表示,「這個國家發展得如此之快,以至於人們大量地走捷徑,等於是坐等事故發生。」
韓國海事大學(Korea Maritime and Ocean University)航海學教授金昌傑(Kim Chang-je,音)表示,就船運業而言,這樣的指責似乎符合實情。他說,「我們設立了和全球規範類似的安全規範和機制,但卻執行不力。『歲月號』暴露了韓國船運業的所有問題。」
調查人員還表示,「歲月號」所屬企業清海鎮船運公司(Chonghaejin Marine)添加卧艙艙位的決定很可能削弱了船體在傾斜後恢復平衡的能力。
韓國檢驗機構韓國船級社(Korea Register of Shipping)曾建議清海鎮船運公司減少載貨量,增多壓艙水,以抵消船體穩定性的損失,然後才批准了該公司的船體設計改造申請。然而,反對派議員金永祿(Kim Young-rok,音)周二表示,「歲月號」離開仁川時載有3608噸貨物,是建議最大載貨量的三倍。清海鎮船運公司的審計數據顯示,該公司越來越依賴貨運收入,為的是彌補不斷下降的客運收入。
專家表示,他們懷疑,「歲月號」的某些問題是因安全標準執行鬆懈引起的,鬆懈的原因則是韓國海洋漁業部(Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries)、韓國航運協會(Korea Shipping Association)和航運公司之間的關係。
韓國海事大學的另一名海事安全專家鄭胤哲(Jung Yun-chul,音)表示,「在航運協會變成獨立機構之前,我們根本不能指望安全規範得到充分的執行。」

As Ferry Death Toll Rises, Hand-Wringing Over Tendency to Overlook Safety

A temporary morgue in Jindo, set up to identify victims of the sunken ferry Sewol. As of Tuesday night, the death toll had risen to 121, but 181 were still missing.
Uriel Sinai for The New York Times
A temporary morgue in Jindo, set up to identify victims of the sunken ferry Sewol. As of Tuesday night, the death toll had risen to 121, but 181 were still missing.為確認「歲月號」渡輪上的遇難者而在珍島建立的臨時停屍房。

JINDO, South Korea — As Navy divers recovered the bodies of dozens of teenagers drowned waiting for a rescue of their doomed ferry, South Korea has begun a national bout of hand-wringing over the country’s tendency to overlook safety precautions in its quest for economic success.
With a mounting list of errors that appeared to have contributed to the ferry disaster, maritime experts, the press and regular citizens venting their anger on social media have begun to question what they describe as inadequate safety precautions and often lax regulation of businesses.
  • 查看大图The mother of one of the missing passengers from the ferry shows the photo of her daughter to another relative of the missing. Most of the missing are students from Danwon High School.
    Jean Chung for The New York Times
    The mother of one of the missing passengers from the ferry shows the photo of her daughter to another relative of the missing. Most of the missing are students from Danwon High School.
On Tuesday, an opposition lawmaker released data showing that the ship was carrying three times its recommended maximum cargo, though it remained unclear if that could have helped destabilize it.
In addition, President Park Geun-hye, who has been withering in her criticism of the crew, has also argued that cozy relations between regulators and shippers may have contributed to the catastrophe, one of South Korea’s worst in peacetime. The prime minister, meanwhile, cited specific problems that might have been addressed by better regulation, including suspicions that renovations to add more sleeping cabins made the ship top-heavy and more likely to keel over.
The country’s top newspapers reflected the growing sense of anger, and shock, over what they suggested was a lack of proper oversight. “Are we a safe society or a third-rate people?” read one editorial headline in the JoongAng newspaper. And the daily Dong-A newspaper ran an editorial titled “Cry Korea,” in which it argued that Ms. Park should live up to her campaign promise to run an “administration of safety.”
For years, South Koreans called their country “a land of disasters” after a lack of regulation or a cavalier attitude toward safety, or both, were at least partly blamed for a string of accidents.
In 1993, an Asiana Airlines jet slammed into a hill not far from the site of the ferry accident, killing 68 passengers. Later that year, an overloaded ferry sank, killing 292. In 1994, a bridge collapsed in Seoul, killing 32. In 1995, 101 died in a gas explosion, and 501 in the collapse of a department store in Seoul that was weakened after the owner violated building safety codes by adding a swimming pool at the top. Two years later, a Korean Air jet crashed in Guam, killing 228.
With no large-scale disaster reported since arson caused a subway fire that killed 192 people in 2003, South Korea appeared to have put its curse behind it — and the country appeared to have moved on from its culture of “ppali ppali,” or “hurry hurry,” loosely translated as a tendency to justify cutting corners to get work finished quickly.
Now, many Koreans are expressing shame at how far their country still needs to go to address safety concerns, adding to the grief and anger that has gripped the country since the accident last Wednesday.
On Tuesday, anger at the crew’s apparent missteps in the evacuation — and their abandonment of the ferry, the Sewol, as it sank with scores of people trapped inside — only grew as investigators said the crew was not even the first to notify the authorities that the ship was in trouble. The first call, they said, came from a high school student who called the police.
“Save us! We’re on a ship and I think it’s sinking,” the student is quoted as saying, according to the South Korean national news agency, Yonhap. The boy, identified only by his family name, Choi, is among the missing.
As of Tuesday night, the death toll had risen to 121, but 181 were still missing.
Analysts said the ferry accident appeared to be a reminder that South Korea did not shed its easy acceptance of loose regulatory enforcement even as it became a high-tech economic powerhouse flooding the world markets with Samsung smartphones. The culture of lax enforcement is such a given, experts say, that government officials consider working in public safety a second-rate job.
In South Korea, more than 31,000 people, including 3,000 students, die every year in accidents, accounting for 12.8 percent of the country’s total annual deaths, the highest rate among major developed nations.
Those accidents include everything from car accidents to fires, and it is unclear how much can be attributed to a lack of focus on safety. But there is a general acknowledgment in hypercompetitive South Korea that success is often measured by how quickly and cheaply a job is done, and that spending too much time and resources trying to follow rules is sometimes seen as losing a competitive edge.
“The country has grown so rapidly that a lot of shortcuts have been made, so that it’s waiting for an accident to happen,” said Tom Coyner, a member of the American Chamber of Commerce in Korea and the author of “Doing Business in Korea.”
Kim Chang-je, a professor of navigation science at Korea Maritime and Ocean University, said the complaints appeared to be true of the ferry business. “We have the safety regulations and systems that were similar to global norms,” he said. “But they are not properly enforced. All the problems with the South Korean ferry business have come out in the Sewol case.”
He and other experts pointed out a host of issues they say undermined safety on the ferry, including that the crew included several contract workers, who might have been less familiar with the ship than a regular crew.
Investigators have also said the decision by the company that owned the ferry, Chonghaejin Marine, to add more sleeping cabins probably undermined the ship’s ability to regain its balance after tilting.
The Korea Register of Shipping, an inspection agency, approved the change to the ship’s design after advising Chonghaejin Marine to carry less cargo and more ballast water to compensate for the loss of stability. But on Tuesday Kim Young-rok, an opposition lawmaker, said that when the ship left Incheon, it carried 3,608 tons of cargo, three times the recommended maximum. The company’s audit data showed it has depended increasingly upon cargo to compensate for declining passenger revenues.
Prosecutors were investigating whether the Sewol did not carry enough ballast water to accommodate the extra cargo. One of the two first mates arrested on Tuesday told reporters that when he tried to right the ship after tilting, the ballast “didn’t work.”
Prosecutors raided Korea Register’s headquarters on Tuesday and barred the head of Chonghaejin Marine, as well as the company’s family owners, from leaving the country.
It has also become clear that the captain most likely violated national navigational guidelines when he left the ship in the control of the least experienced ship’s mate through a waterway notorious for its rapid currents. The guidelines stipulate a captain should be in control in busy or dangerous waters.
The Sewol also had no extra captain, as ships often do when they are on long overnight voyages so the two can take turns in the bridge, experts said. The ship’s main captain was on leave.
Experts say they suspect some of the problems with the ship resulted from lax execution of safety standards made possible by ties among the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, the Korea Shipping Association and shipping companies.
The shipping association is a lobby for shipping companies and is financed by them. But it is also charged with inspecting ships for safety measures, such as a proper and balanced stowage of cargo. In addition, many senior officials from the ministry — which is supposed to oversee the association’s enforcement — also join the association after they retire.
“We will never be able to expect safety regulations to be properly enforced until the shipping association becomes independent,” said Jung Yun-chul, another maritime safety expert at Korea Maritime and Ocean University.