2012年12月30日 星期日


China Cracks Down on Food Safety
 Authorities in China's political and financial capitals plan crackdowns on companies that violate food-safety regulations, after scrutiny of drugs given to locally served chickens.

The crackdowns in Beijing and Shanghai mark a new effort by local authorities to bolster food safety in a country increasingly worried about what it consumes. But analysts question whether such measures will be effective in changing China's slack attitude to food safety.

In a statement posted on its website and dated Thursday, the Shanghai Municipal Food Safety Committee said food companies found engaging in any of 11 types of harmful food-safety practices would be blacklisted and prevented from engaging in the food business, and barred from receiving subsidies from the government or benefiting from preferential government policies.

The harmful practices would include the production of food from inedible substances or dangerous materials, or using prohibited food additives. Executives of the companies would also face censure under the new rules.

Shanghai Municipal Food Safety Committee officials weren't available for comment.

Separately, the state-run Xinhua news agency later Thursday said Beijing would soon introduce its own tighter food-safety laws. Food producers or vendors will be banned from the sector for life if they produce or sell unsafe food, it said, while executives of companies that commit violations won't be allowed to operate in the industry for five years. It also bans the reuse of discarded oil, called gutter oil, a persistent problem in China.

Though the Shanghai notice didn't mention it, the city has been in the food-safety spotlight in recent weeks following a report by state-run China Central Television that alleged suppliers to Yum Brands Inc. YUM +0.65% ─owners of the KFC chain─had improperly used antibiotics and questioned the company's food-safety practices.

Subsequent tests by the Shanghai Food and Drug Administration of samples of raw chicken taken from a Yum facility in Shanghai found the KFC arm had complied with government limits on antibiotics. But the authority said more tests were needed after the discovery of what it called suspicious levels of an antiviral drug. While the antiviral drug─amantadine, commonly used to fight influenza─currently isn't limited under Chinese law, authorities said they wanted to consult with experts to create a standard for its use in agriculture.

KFC has previously said it is committed to food safety and that it is cooperating with authorities. If referred questions to its U.S. headquarters, and people there weren't immediately available for comment.

China has had many food-safety scares in recent years. Many analysts blame on the country's highly fragmented agricultural sector, which they say makes monitoring of farming practices almost impossible

Some food-safety experts questioned the effectiveness of the latest approach proposed by the Shanghai authorities. 'Safe food depends on production, not on supervision,' said Wu Yongning, chief scientist of the China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment. 'All that's needed is credibility--credible people will produce safe food.'

Polls of Chinese public sentiment show increasing worries about food after scandals involving everything from dairy to eggs to gelatin capsules. The issue galvanized the public in 2008 when dairy producers were discovered to have added the industrial chemical melamine to baby formula, causing the deaths of six infants and illnesses in 300,000 others.

'The challenge has been for regulators to catch the violating companies before the companies' practices become a national food safety and media crisis,' said James Rice, CEO of CSM CSM.AE +0.31%China, a unit of Dutch bakery-products supplier CSM. Calling the new law an 'additive,' Mr. Rice said, 'China's enforcement agencies have enough authority to enforce the law, and we have seen them resolve food safety crisis issues effectively in the past.' But he adds that 'regulators are stretched to the limit of their manpower, given that there are literally hundreds of thousands of small food producers in the country.'

In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration announced new rules in April to reduce the use of antibiotics. The FDA estimates farm animals consumed 29.1 million pounds of antibiotics in 2010, up from 28.7 million pounds a year earlier, although animals are tested to ensure there are no residues in meat.







European Pressphoto Agency
此 外﹐新華社週四晚上報道說﹐北京市將很快推出更嚴格的食品安全條例。新條例規定﹐北京市食品生產經營者生產經營有毒、有害食品﹐對人體健康造成嚴重後果、 構成犯罪的﹐終身不得從事食品生產經營活動。對被吊銷食品生產、流通或者餐飲服務許可證負有責任的單位主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員以及直接責任人﹐5 年內不得從事食品生產、經營和管理工作。新條例明確禁止使用“地溝油”。“地溝油”是中國食品安全方面的老大難問題。

雖然上海方面的通知沒有提及﹐但近幾週來上海已經處在食品安全問題的聚光燈下。此前中國中央電視台(CCTV)播出的一則報道稱﹐肯德基(KFC)連鎖餐廳的所有人、百勝餐飲集團(Yum Brands Inc.)的供應商非法使用抗生素﹐並質疑該公司的食品安全做法。

上 海市食品藥品監督管理局隨後對取自百勝上海庫房的生雞肉樣品的檢測發現﹐肯德基遵守了政府有關抗生素使用的限制規定。但該部門表示﹐在檢出其所稱的疑似抗 病毒藥物殘留之後﹐還需要做更多測試。這種抗病毒藥物為金剛烷胺﹐通常用來對抗流感病毒。雖然中國法律目前沒有限制金剛烷胺的使用﹐但有關部門表示﹐他們 希望咨詢有關專家﹐以建立金剛烷胺在農業中的使用標準。





荷 蘭烘焙食品供應商CSM子公司CSM中國的首席執行長賴斯(James Rice)說﹐監管機構面臨的挑戰是﹐在違規企業的做法引發全國性的食品安全和媒體危機之前揪出這些公司。賴斯把新的法規稱作“添加劑”﹐他說﹐中國的執 法機構有足夠的權威來執行這部法律﹐我們已經看到他們在過去有效地解決了食品安全危機。但是他補充說﹐考慮到中國的小型食品製造商有幾十萬家﹐監管機構的 人手已經不夠用了。

在美國﹐美國食品和藥物管理局(Food and Drug Administration﹐簡稱:FDA)4月份宣佈了減少使用抗生素的新規定。FDA估計﹐2010年農場牲畜使用2,910萬磅(合1.32萬 噸)的抗生素﹐高於上一年的2,870磅﹐不過這些動物會經過檢疫﹐確保他們體內沒有殘留抗生素。


2012年12月29日 星期六

孟加拉制衣廠大火引發街頭抗議/ Walmart factory monitoring system



這家工廠為香港外包巨頭利豐有限公司(Li & Fung HK:494 -0.32% )生產服裝﹐而利豐又是沃爾瑪連鎖公司(Wal-Mart Stores Inc. WMT -0.41% )等零售商的採購商。週一夜間﹐沃爾瑪說﹐不再授權該孟加拉工廠為自己生產服裝﹐還說已經切斷了與一家供應商的聯繫﹐該供應商在未經沃爾瑪同意的情況下與那個工廠簽訂了分包協議。沃爾瑪拒絕給出這家供應商的名稱。

由 服裝工人組成的若干團體說﹐抗議工人堵塞了達卡某郊區的街道﹐抗議活動中時有暴力事件發生。工人們向工廠投擲石塊﹐砸毀了多輛汽車﹐還封鎖了該地區一條主 要公路。約有200家工廠週一停業。抗議活動最先爆發於達卡北邊的工業區Ashulia﹐上週六造成多人死亡的火災就發生在這裡。

上週六夜間﹐孟加拉企業Tuba Group旗下的制衣廠Tazreen Fashions Ltd.一幢八層建築發生火災﹐該工廠生產的服裝出口至歐美國家。除為利豐生產服裝外﹐該公司可能還與部分零售商有直接業務關係。


Associated Press
上 週日﹐孟加拉消防部門稱至少有120人死亡。但到了週一﹐警方和政府官員卻出現了說法不一致的情況。孟加拉內政部副部長霍克(Shamsul Hoque)說﹐官方統計的死亡人數是109人。工業警察負責人薩拉姆(M Abdus Salam)說﹐已發現至少111具屍體。

Tuba Group公司網站上發佈的文件包括一封自稱來自沃爾瑪美國和加拿大道德採購部門的信函。該信函通知Tazreen Fashions說﹐2011年5月的審計報告發現﹐這是一個“高危”工廠。信函說﹐如兩年內再出現兩次這樣的結果﹐沃爾瑪就會停止向這家工廠下訂單﹐停 單時間至少為一年。


沃爾瑪沒有提到是否發出了那封公佈在Tuba Group公司網站上的信函。

無法聯繫到Tazreen Fashions和Tuba Group的管理層置評。據孟加拉媒體報道﹐有關部門已下令對火災事故展開調查。


利豐表達了對死者的哀悼。利豐說﹐此事不會對其財務狀況造成重大影響﹐還說今年給Tazreen的所有訂單總計約11.1萬美元。這些訂單由利豐美國公司旗下的Kids Headquarters發出。


Factory Fire Sets Off Protest in Bangladesh

Thousands of Bangladeshis took to the streets Monday to protest a weekend fire at a factory that made clothes for exports in which more than 100 workers were killed.

The factory supplied clothes for Hong Kong-based sourcing giant Li & Fung, 0494.HK -1.28% which is a buyer for retailers such as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. WMT -0.41% Late Monday, Wal-Mart said the factory was no longer authorized to make clothes for the retailer, and that it had cut ties to a supplier that subcontracted with the factory without its authorization. The company declined to name the supplier.

Garment-workers' groups said workers were blocking the streets of a Dhaka suburb in a protest that turned violent at times. The workers threw stones at factories, smashed vehicles and blocked a major highway in the area. Some 200 factories were closed for the day after the protest erupted in Ashulia, the industrial zone just north of Dhaka where Saturday's deadly fire occurred.

The fire broke out late Saturday at an eight-story building of Tazreen Fashions Ltd., a subsidiary of Bangladesh's Tuba Group, an apparel factory that exports to the U.S. and Europe. In addition to making clothes for Li & Fung, the Bangladesh group may also have had direct relationships with some retailers.

The fire was the latest in a series of deadly factory fires in Bangladesh, labor-rights groups say.

Fire-department officials had reported at least 120 deaths Sunday, but on Monday, police and government officials gave conflicting reports. Shamsul Hoque, junior minister for home affairs, said the official figure was 109. M Abdus Salam, director general of industrial police, said at least 111 bodies had been recovered.

Documents posted on Tuba Group's website included a letter purporting to be from Wal-Mart's ethical-sourcing department for the U.S. and Canada informing Tazreen Fashions that a May 2011 audit had found it to be a 'high-risk' factory. The letter said that two more such findings within two years would lead to Wal-Mart suspending orders from the factory for at least a year.

'Our thoughts are with the families of the victims of this tragedy.' Wal-Mart said in its statement emailed Monday. 'The fact that this occurred is extremely troubling to us, and we will continue to work across the apparel industry to improve fire safety education and training in Bangladesh.'

Wal-Mart didn't address whether it had sent the letter that was posted on the Tuba Group website.

Officials at Tazreen Fashions and Tuba Group couldn't be reached to comment. Authorities have ordered an investigation into the cause of the fire, according to local media.

In Wal-Mart's 2012 report on global responsibility, the retailer said it had stopped working with 49 factories in Bangladesh because of fire-safety issues.

Li & Fung, which expressed distress at the deaths, said the incident won't have a material impact on its financial performance, saying the total orders placed with Tazreen on behalf of Kids Headquarters, a subsidiary of its U.S. division, amounted to around $111,000 this year.


As Walmart Makes Safety Vows, It’s Seen as Obstacle to Change
Critics of Walmart say its factory monitoring system is flawed, and the company has shown little interest in changing the practice of demanding that factories meet safety standards at their own cost.

2012年12月27日 星期四

Toyota would pay more than $1 billion,

Toyota Agrees to Settle Lawsuit Tied to Accelerations

Toyota would pay more than $1 billion, giving cash to vehicle owners for the loss of value from multiple recalls and installing special safety features on up to 3.2 million cars.

2012年12月26日 星期三

社區協力農業(Community Supported Agriculture,簡稱CSA)




       尤其,這兩年在新竹二重埔的彩虹農場一場社區協力農業(Community Supported Agriculture,簡稱CSA)實驗,更證明你不僅可以有機會食用安心的農產,更能夠通過實地參與,如同擁有自家農園般親切。

       過去兩年,彩虹農場的兩分地,供養15個家庭的生活,一年一個家庭付出1.2萬元台幣,就享有家附近的一座農園,全家吃的十幾種蔬菜、雞 肉、蛋,都來自於此。週末,帶著孩子去踏踏泥土,和照顧農園的農人一同耕作,全家人一起上一堂農學、烹飪甚至自然科學的課。也因為周週報到,熟識農人,你 知道這裡沒有化學肥料、沒有農藥,吃得安心,也飽得紮實。

       消費者吃得安心 繳年費雇農夫種安心作物

       實驗背後的推手,工業技術研究院特約研究員陳建泰表示,CSA的概念是消費者每年年初繳出年費做為農人一整年的成本,農地所有者可以用這筆 錢來聘雇耕作者,而農人則每週交給會員一定的生產量,通常是無農藥、友善環境農法的產物。除了彩虹農場,在新竹千甲裏,一塊4倍大的農地,由50戶人家支 援,成為第二期計劃。




       老農重新被重視 技術能傳承,地不用休耕





       社會問題也解決 創造就業讓底層者有工作




       為此,彩虹農場前半年的心力,放在與消費者的溝通。從下田耕種,到每星期一次的例會、通過網路隨時分享的耕種進度、網志等,「他們都知道我 們在幹嘛了,就會一直支援我們了!」隨手拔起一株茭白筍,陳建泰大大的咬了一口「他們現在帶孩子來都敢這樣吃,」名聲傳開了,長期支援彩虹農場的民眾自動 聚集。

       雖然CSA在台灣還在起步階段,但以美國為例,根據美國政府所支援的國家適切科技中心(National Center for Appropriate Technology)調查,美國CSA農業組織在2001年時有761個,至2005年,已有1144個,每個組織平均由250個家戶支援,由此推算, 美國從CSA取得農產品的家戶已超過27萬戶。而在歐洲,丹麥甚至已出現跨國的CSA農業組織。

       「台灣絕對是有可能的」,蔡培慧分析,台灣小農多、城鄉距離近、中產階級眾多,加上四處可見的城鄉交接帶做為場域,以及最近興起的青年從農 風氣,生產端和客觀因素都漸漸成熟,台灣人能否在城市附近玩起真實版快樂農場,消費者的支援,就是東風。(撰文:王毓雯,《商業週刊》)

2012年12月25日 星期二

Norovirus 「諾羅(Norovirus)」腸道病毒感染

單週萬人腹瀉 諾羅病毒肆虐 【16:35】







〔編譯林翠儀/綜合報導〕日本宮崎縣日南市一家醫院爆發「諾羅(Norovirus)」腸道病毒的 集體感染,包括住院病患及員工,共有44人感染,14日以來,已陸續有6人死亡、5人病情嚴重。日本國立感染症研究所也擔心,今年日本感染諾羅病毒的病患 增加,直逼2006年爆發的大流行。
諾羅病毒是一種引起非細菌性急性腸胃炎的病毒,通常在冬季較為常見,經由感染者的口水、糞便等傳染,而 且傳染力極高。一般症狀為嘔吐、腹瀉、腹痛、低燒等,容易發生脫水、休克等癥狀,如果是健康的成人,幾天就能恢復健康,但若為孩童或年長者,則易引起脫水 症狀,導致病情惡化。


毎日新聞 2012年12月23日 19時30分(最終更新 12月23日 19時39分)





 ノロウイルス(Norovirus)は、電子顕微鏡で観察される形態学的分類でSRSV(小型球形ウイルス)、あるいはノーウォーク様ウイルス“Norwalk-like viruses”という属名で呼ばれてきたウイルスである。2002年の夏、国際ウイルス命名委員会によってノロウイルスという正式名称が決定され、世界で統一されて用いられるようになった。
 ノロウイルスはヒトに対して嘔吐、下痢などの急性胃腸炎症状を起こすが、その多くは数日の経過で自然に回復する。季節的には秋口から春先に発症者が多くなる冬型の胃腸炎、食中毒の原因ウイルスとして知られている。ヒトへの感染経路は、主に経口感染(食品、糞口)である。感染者の糞便・吐物およびこれらに直接または間接的に汚染された物品類、そして食中毒としての食品類(汚染されたカキあるいはその他の二枚貝類の生、あるいは加熱不十分な調理での喫食、感染者によって汚染された食品の喫食、その他)が感染源の代表的なものとしてあげられる。ヒトからヒトへの感染として、ノロウイルスが飛沫感染、あるいは比較的狭い空間などでの空気感染によって感染拡大したとの報告もある。この場合の空気感染とは、結核、麻疹、肺ペストのような広範な空気感染(飛沫核感染)ではないところから、埃とともに周辺に散らばるような塵埃感染という語の方が正確ではないかと考えている(http://idsc.nih.go.jp/disease/norovirus/0702keiro.html )。
疫 学




表1. ノロウイルスによる食中毒の年別報告
表1. ノロウイルスによる食中毒の年別報告

表2. ノロウイルスによる食中毒の年別・月別報告
表2 ノロウイルスによる食中毒の年別・月別報告
 ノロウイルスはサポウイルス〔Sapovirus;旧名称サッポロ様ウイルス(Sapporo-like viruses : SLV)〕と並ぶカリシ(ラテン語:コップを意味する)ウイルス科の属名である。
図1. ノロウイルスの電子顕微鏡像(埼玉県衛生研究所篠原先生撮影)
ウイルス粒子を電子顕微鏡で見たときに、その表面にコップ状の窪んだ構造が観察されることがカリシウイルス命名の由来となっている。図1にノロウイルスの電子顕微鏡像を示した。直径が38ナノメータの正二十面体である。プロトタイプは1968年に米国オハイオ州ノーウォークの小学校で発生した集団胃腸炎から検出され、1972年に免疫電子顕微鏡下でその形態が明らかになったノーウォークウイルス/68(NV/68)である。以来、形態学的にNV/68と区別できないが抗原的に異なる株は、発見された地名を冠して、たとえばスノーマウンテンウイルス、メキシコウイルス、わが国でも音更(おとふけ)因子、チバウイルスなどと命名されてきた。ノロウイルスは培養細胞や実験動物への感染がいまだに成功していないウイルスで、ヒトが唯一の感受性動物であるといってよい。現在、ノロウイルスに属するウイルスはGenogroup I(GI)とGenogroup II(GII)の2つの遺伝子群に分類され、さらにそれぞれは14と17あるいはそれ以上の遺伝子型(genotype)に分類される。また、各遺伝子型に対応した血清型があると考えられ、極めて多様性を持った集団として存在する。図2に構造蛋白コード領域の上流部分約250塩基の塩基配列に基づいて作成した系統樹を示した。この領域は、後述するノロウイルス検出用RT-PCRプライマーG1SKF & G1SKR, G2SKF & G2SKRによって増幅されるPCR増幅産物の、プライマー部分を除いた領域である。GI, GIIに含まれる遺伝子型番号は欧米の研究者らと協議の上、Fields VIROLOGYの第4版に従ってナンバリングした。「病原微生物検出情報 Vol.24 No.12, p.5」に掲載済みの系統樹と番号が異なる遺伝子型があるが、今後の混乱を防ぐ意味でも、今後は本報のナンバリングに従っていただきたい。その方が、海外の研究者との情報交換もスムーズにいくと思われる。

図2. ノロウイルスの構造蛋白全領域に基づく系統樹
RT-PCRプライマーG1SKF & G1SKR, G2SKF & G2SKRによって増幅される領域のうち、プライマーの部分を除いた253塩基をDDBJ(http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/Welcome-j.html)のclustalWを用いてアライメントし、Kimura 2-parameterで遺伝学的距離を算出した。分岐点検定のためブートストラップ検定は1000回行い、950以上を統計学的に有意な分岐とした。系統樹はclustalWの値に基づき、Njplot(http://pbil.univlyon1.fr/software/njplot.html)で作成した。遺伝子型別はKatayamaら(Viology 299, p225-239, 2002)の方法に基づいて行い、遺伝子型番号についてはFields VIROLOGYの第4版に従った。*印は、VLPと免疫血清を用いたEIAで、相互に抗原性が異なることを確認済みの遺伝子型である(国立感染症研究所、名取)。
臨床症状 ノロウイルスのボランティアへの投与試験の結果から、潜伏期は1~2日であると考えられている。嘔気、嘔吐、下痢が主症状であるが、腹痛、頭痛、発熱、悪寒、筋痛、咽頭痛、倦怠感などを伴うこともある。特別な治療を必要とせずに軽快するが、乳幼児や高齢者およびその他、体力の弱っている者での嘔吐、下痢による脱水や窒息には注意をする必要がある。ウイルスは、症状が消失した後も3~7日間ほど患者の便中に排出されるため、2次感染に注意が必要である。ボランティアのバイオプシー由来の腸管組織を病理組織学的に観察した結果から、ノロウイルスはヒトの空腸の上皮細胞に感染して繊毛の委縮と扁平化、さらに剥離と脱落を引き起こして下痢を生じると考えられている。しかしながら、このような現象がどのようなメカニズムによるものなのか、その詳細はまだ不明である。

2012年12月24日 星期一

塑化劑: 生活中無處不在/ 中國案件:酒鬼等等

 北京業者自曝/中國醬油、醋 塑化劑含量超出白酒400倍
〔國 際新聞中心/綜合報導〕中國白酒十一月才傳出塑化劑超標,現在北京一家食品公司的董事又透過微網誌爆料,指稱中國製的調味料也有問題,「食用醬油、醋、飲 料裡面的塑化劑含量是酒的四百倍」,短短一天,這條訊息就被轉發一萬五千次,消費者莫不人心惶惶,深怕早在不知不覺間吃進塑化劑調味料。香港媒體也大篇幅 報導此事,並將此事歸咎於中國規定調味料和飲料的塑化劑含量標準不一、前後矛盾。
北 京綠腰食品有限公司執行董事龔也長最近在個人「微博」上爆料:「昨天才知道塑化劑原來離我們這麼近…我們天天需要食用的醬油、醋、飲料裡面的(塑化劑)含 量是酒的四百倍。」媒體聯繫到龔也長時,龔也長雖改口說,「微博中說食用的醬油、醋、飲料裡的塑化劑含量是酒的四百倍,確實有點誇張」,但食品用香精香料 中的塑化劑最大殘留量標準,確實比白酒行業中塑化劑最大殘留量高出數倍。
龔也長指出,中國並未明確規範調味料和飲料的塑化劑含量上限。中國 衛生部去年六月頒佈的規定中,食品、食品添加物的塑化劑最大殘留量需在每公斤○.三至九.○毫克之間,但同年八月又規定,食品用香精香料中的塑化劑總含 量,不得超過六○毫克,前後標準相差數十倍。報導指出,塑化劑標準前後不一,是由於多家食品業大廠向衛生部施壓,要求放寬規定所致。龔也長透露,台灣起雲 劑(塑化劑)風波爆發後,中國相關標準也做出調整,但調整的方向顯然更有利於保護企業。
由 於香港市面多款醬油等調味料都是由「內地」輸入,港人吃下大量含塑化劑調味料也不自知。不過,也有專家表示,在醬油、醋等調味料中添加塑化劑並無任何作 用,添加的可能性很低。塑化劑作用類似人工荷爾蒙,長期攝取會干擾內分泌,危害男性生殖能力,並促使女性性早熟,長期大量攝取更會增加肝腎負擔,導致肝 癌。還有研究指稱,塑化劑會損害人類基因,禍延下一代。



 塑化劑蒸發白酒板塊三百億 上海超市「酒鬼」下架

  塑化劑風暴席捲白酒行業,據「21世紀網」曝光,酒鬼酒公司一款五十度的白酒產品檢測出多種塑化劑,含量超出國家標準二點六倍,長期攝取可能會 擾亂內分泌系統,導致性早熟甚至肝癌,「酒鬼酒」變「致命酒」。中國酒業協會就事件發聲明,承認白酒產品基本上都含有塑化劑成分,但強調含量遠低於國外標 準。



〔記者王孟倫、黃以敬/綜合報導〕中國酒鬼酒產品恐含塑一事引發關注 ,台灣菸酒公司表示,若使用劣質的塑膠瓶蓋、運輸軟管與添加香料配方,就很容易出現塑化劑在酒液體中。台酒並強調,公司是嚴格採取塑化劑「零檢出」,若消 費者有任何疑慮,可以將產品送到台酒檢驗,如驗出違反國家衛生標準規定者,就會免費換貨。
專家︰未進口酒品 最好別碰
林 口長庚醫院臨床毒物科主任林杰樑認為,以酒鬼酒被驗出塑化劑DBP超標二.六倍的情形,每一公升含量約一點多毫克,十分微量,可能是製程中無意遭到塑料容 器污染,或是業者添加充當定香劑,營造酒香。一個六十公斤的成人,每天至少要喝超過五百西西,才會對生育功能造成影響;至於淺酌的消費者則無妨,因為塑化 劑會經人體的腎臟代謝,約兩天時間就能全部代謝掉。

這 項研究由成大副校長蘇慧貞、環醫所教授李俊璋、高雄第一科技大學環境與安全衛生工程系副教授李家偉等人共同合作,在國科會「永續發展整合研究成果發表 會」上發表。他們從大台南地區挑選一百九十三戶,每戶挑選幼兒最常活動的五個地方採樣;李俊璋指出,從中位數看來,每克的灰塵含了1.23毫克DEHP, 比起十五年內歐洲、美國的研究都高出許多。
李 俊璋指出,不少室內裝潢採用木質地板,上面的亮光漆和防水層就可能有塑化劑,打蠟時蠟油中也可能有。李家偉則說,電器的電線外皮有塑化劑,如果疏於打 掃,通電時電線溫度提高,塑化劑可能揮發附著在灰塵上,或逸散到空氣中。建議大家電器不用時就拔掉插頭,「不只節能減碳,也保護身體健康。」
「台 灣已經過度『塑化』。」李俊璋認為,某些攤販不想洗盤子,就在盤子外面套一層塑膠袋,「塑膠袋耐熱是保證『不變形』,不代表『不溶出』塑化劑!」他也 不建議用塑膠奶瓶幫小孩泡牛奶,萬一洗瓶子刮傷內壁,下次泡就溶出更多。要吃便利商店的微波食品,最好買回家倒在盤子裡,「用那種容器我不敢吃!」
‧衛生署食品藥物管理局網站/起雲劑DEHP汙染 專區

最近起雲劑被違法添加塑化劑的風波越燒越大,究竟什麼是塑化劑?其實塑化劑是添加在塑膠製品裡的化學物質,主要用來讓塑膠定型用的,但幾乎每次消基會抽查 市售的塑膠製品,都會發現塑化劑或雙酚A有過量現象,到底這些物質對人體有什麼影響,我們帶您來了解。熱騰騰的飯菜,放在塑膠便當裡,滾燙的熱湯,也拿塑 膠袋來裝,即使想喝個現泡的熱茶,用得還是保麗龍杯,日常生活中,不管是吃的喝的用的,幾乎都是塑膠製品,雖然用起來很方便,但可能暗藏危機。



塑膠這麼毒,生活卻又少不了它,到底該怎麼用才能安心呢?塑膠製品最怕熱,要判斷不同材質的耐熱溫度,其實有撇步,轉一轉塑膠容器,可以看到三角形的回收標 誌,裡頭記載1到7的識別碼,5號的聚丙烯最耐熱,可以用在超過100度C的食物,2號和4號的聚乙烯也相對安全,1號的寶特瓶和3號的PVC,耐熱溫度 都在60到80度之間,過熱容易產生塑化劑。

6號是PS或保麗龍 ,最高不能超過90度C,否則會釋放有毒的苯乙烯,7號其他類最常見的是PC,可以耐高溫到130度C,但可能溶出雙酚A,塑膠種類實在太多,光靠回收符號來判斷,恐怕還是一頭霧水。


2012年12月18日 星期二

Fukushima conference wraps up on a positive note

Backrush of tsunami hitting Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Okumamachi, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, is seen on March 11, 2011


Fukushima conference wraps up on a positive note

International nuclear experts want to learn lessons from the Fukushima disaster but there is still a long way to safety.
The admission of guilt surely came as no coincidence. Just one day before the Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety began in Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the operator of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex, accepted the findings of a parliamentary committee set up to investigate the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl and admitted that a "lack of safety culture and bad habits" were to blame.
For 18 months, Tepco refused to confess to any mistakes and described the tsunami as an "unexpected event" but in October the energy provider admitted that the accident could have been prevented.
Some 160,000 people had to leave their homes and vast areas were contaminated by radiation.
"Improved a lot"
On the same day, Yukiya Amano, the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), visited the Fukushima plant with some 30 experts and said that the situation had "improved a lot" but there were still problems and areas where radiation was “extremely high.” He did not wear protective clothing but did cover his mouth and hands.
IAEA head Yukiya Amano YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty ImagesIAEA head Yukiya Amano delivered the opening speech
"Fukushima was a clear warning to everybody dealing with nuclear energy that safety can never be taken for granted," Amano said at the opening of the conference. In the evening of December 15, the Fukushima Prefectural government and the IAEA signed a memorandum of mutual collaboration. They will cooperate in such areas as decontamination and radioactive waste management, and Fukushima Medical University and IAEA will strengthen their cooperation in radiological education and other areas. A Capacity Building Center with IAEA radiation monitoring equipment and the facitilities to give training in responding to emergencies in Japan and the Asia-Pacific region will also be built - the first of its kind outside of Vienna.
More nuclear safety
The conference participants - from over 110 countries and some dozen international organizations - praised the progress that had been made in Fukushima. "The lessons learned from these activities, through their dissemination and related cooperation with the international community, are expected to contribute to enhancing the safety and effectiveness of future decommissioning and remediation activities worldwide," a statement issued at the end of day one said.
"My wish is that, through this conference, we can gather wisdom from abroad for the affected areas and disseminate initiatives undertaken in the disaster-affected areas around the world," co-chair Japanese Foreign Minister Koichiro Gemba said.
The positive outlook in Koriyama City did not tally with the evaluation of the new Japanese Nuclear Regulation Authority, whose chairman, Shunichi Tanaka, said he found the situation "exceedingly unsatisfactory."
An anti-nuclear protester 
REUTERS/Yuriko Nakao There is a vocal anti-nuclear movement in Japan
"Reactors should not go online unless we are convinced of their safety," he said, adding that it would take enormous efforts to raise the awareness of safety in the nuclear industry.
Strengthening the global nuclear safety framework
The IAEA started work on a non-binding action plan to strengthen the global nuclear safety framework in September 2011, just months after the Fukushima disaster took place. The main advice was that there be more safety controls, improved standards and for regulation authorities to be more independent. Germany criticized the action plan for being too lax. The Fukushima conference was the next step. Over three days, delegates discussed the lessons learned from the disaster, the strengthening of nuclear safety and emergency preparedness and finally the protection of people and the environment from ionizing radiation in a series of working sessions.
Lack of impartiality
Japan's main opposition Liberal Democratic Party leader Shinzo Abe answers a reporter's question at the party headquarters in Tokyo, Sunday night, Dec. 16, 2012Shinzo Abe's election has fuelled speculation Japan will keep atomic energy
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) is expected to release the results of its study on the impact of radiation in Fukushima next May. However, some experts have called the impartiality of such studies into question. Japanese energy providers have financed the work of prominent radiologists who have according to official documents played down the health risks of radioactivity, saying that low levels are harmless or negligible.
Children in Fukushima are spending more and more time outside thanks to such optimistic assessments.

2012年12月17日 星期一

湖口靶場 58噸戰車 輾死阿兵哥

湖口靶場 58噸戰車 輾死阿兵哥

〔記者王錦義、廖雪茹、黃美珠、羅添斌、羅正明、邱宜君/綜合報導〕軍方 訓練又傳不幸意外!海軍陸戰隊六六旅戰車營昨天傍晚在新竹湖口坑子口靶場實施戰車砲射擊鑑測,在結束鑑測變換陣地時,一輛重達五十八噸的M60A3戰車在 行進間,疑因天色昏暗,不慎擦撞路旁正在進行彈藥補給的官兵,造成一死四傷慘劇。
閃避不及 另四官兵受傷
軍 方指出,廿四歲的二兵黃俊瀚(新北市人)因閃避不及,直接遭戰車輾過,左下胸被壓碎、左手腕及雙下肢開放性骨折,到院前已無生命跡象,經急救仍告不治,遺 體送往三總太平間。其餘四名受傷官兵為上尉葉日銘(右腳開放性骨折、送三軍總醫院)、二兵蔡曜任(右腳開放性骨折、送桃園國軍總醫院)、二兵邱顯隆(兩腳 開放性骨折、送三軍總醫院)、二兵楊浩(腳趾擦傷、已出院),均無生命危險。
死者黃俊瀚 十月才入伍
黃 俊瀚的母親到醫院後傷心欲絕,大喊「還我俊瀚來」後一度昏厥。黃的父親黃勝坤說,兒子十月底才入伍,上個月下基地,就常打電話回來抱怨部隊學長欺負新兵, 他常勸兒子要吃苦,沒想到最後看到的竟是一具碎裂的屍體,軍方草菅人命,第一時間還只通報他壓到腳而已,結果到醫院看到的是被輾碎的身體,軍方是想要掩蓋 什麼嗎?
海 軍司令部及陸戰隊指揮部已成立專案小組,將儘速查明意外發生原因及釐清責任。海軍政戰主任聞振國說,不排除是天候、地形等因素影響戰車行進,也可能是人為 操作疏失、機械故障、人員演訓流程疏失等,將調查所有可能原因,給家屬一個交代。司令部並將協助黃姓士兵家屬辦理撫卹等事宜。至於家屬所指控的老兵欺負新 兵,也將請所屬部隊調查。
肇事原因 可能人為疏失
坑 子口靶場位於新竹縣新豐鄉南側靠海,為軍事管制區,現屬陸軍湖口裝甲兵學校管理,第六軍團每年舉辦大型重砲保養射擊,平日不定時軍事演練,為我國極重要的 射擊基地。但當地定置網漁民因漁業權區與坑子口靶場射擊落彈區重疊,造成漁民無法捕魚而損失慘重,抗議多年,地方並認為靶場阻礙新豐進一步發展腹地。

2012年12月16日 星期日



這個結論與今年發表在 《歐洲預防心臟病雜誌》(The European Journal of Preventive Cardiology)上的一項研究是一致的。此研究中,哥本哈根的科學家們利用18年時間跟蹤調查了5106名成年業餘單車手,請他們間或彙報一下自己 騎了幾個小時車和騎得有多劇烈。
然而,並非所有科學家都信服“想長壽,劇烈運動是關鍵”這一論點。哈佛大學醫學院(Harvard Medical School)醫學教授李艾敏博士(I-Min Lee,音譯)說,大多數鑽研鍛煉與長壽關係的人的普遍共識為:最重要的是“能量消耗總量”,而不是耗能過程中有沒有揮汗如雨大張旗鼓。李博士是一篇新的 運動與壽命關係的重要研究的作者。
這項研究於11月6日發表在《公共科學圖書館·醫學》(PLoS Medicine)上。李博士和來自美國國家癌症研究所(National Cancer Institute)及其他機構的同事們將65萬多名多年來參與着國家癌症研究所的調查的美國成年人作為對象,收集了他們鍛煉、體重與死亡的數據。
研究者將參與者的運動水平與現在政府推薦的“每周150分鐘適度運動(比如快走)”做了比較,發現達到推薦運動量的人比全然不動的人平均長壽3.4 年;而那些嚴格要求自己,每周達到兩倍推薦運動量的人則活得更久一些,但增加量就顯然少多了:基本比達到標準運動量的人長壽10個月左右。
有趣的是,運動與長壽間的關聯在稱自己只是偶爾運動的受訪者身上亦有所體現。“相當於每天走10分鐘這樣的很低的運動水平,也能讓人多活將近兩年。”美國國家癌症研究所領導此調查的研究員史蒂文·穆爾(Steven Moore)提到。

Can Housework Help You Live Longer?

It's well known by now that active people typically live longer than those who are sedentary. But precisely what types or amounts of exercise most affect life span has not been clear. Several new studies, though, are beginning to provide some clarity, suggesting that certain activities may be better than others in terms of affecting mortality risk.
Perhaps the most memorable of the new studies was conducted by researchers in Europe who turned to a large database of health information about middle-aged British civil servants. The workers, ages 35 to 55 at the start, were followed for a decade or so, during which time they filled out repeated health questionnaires.
The topics included each man or woman's physical activity during the previous month. Specifically, the questionnaires asked about the number of hours that the volunteers had spent walking, gardening, performing housework, playing sports (swimming, cycling, golf or soccer) and puttering around the house completing yardwork and do-it-yourself repair projects.
Each activity was designated as "mild," like washing the dishes and cooking; "moderate," encompassing weeding and brisk walking; or "vigorous," which here included swimming and mowing the yard. (Riding mowers apparently didn't factor in.)
The researchers also checked death records for the civil servants.
They found that in general, physical activity of any kind was associated with longer life. But the association was much stronger among those people whose activities were relatively intense. Those who regularly painted and repaired their houses or walked briskly enjoyed more protection against premature death than those who washed dishes, even if people spent more overall hours engaged in "mild" activities.
That finding agrees with those of a study published this year in The European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, in which scientists in Copenhagen followed 5,106 adult recreational cyclists for about 18 years, asking their volunteers to occasionally report how many hours and how strenuously they were riding their bikes.
The researchers also tracked deaths among the group.
It turned out that the men and women who reported riding relatively hard (although none were racers) lived longer than those who rode at an easy pace, even if they weren't pedaling for as many hours. On average, cyclists who regularly rode hard lived about four or five years longer than those who went at a more leisurely pace.
"Our general recommendations to all adults would be that brisk cycling is preferable to slow," the authors conclude.
But not all researchers are convinced that intense exercise is essential, if your goal is a longer life. The general consensus among most researchers studying exercise and longevity "is that it is the total amount of energy expended that is important," and not whether you huff and strain during that expenditure, says Dr. I-Min Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, an author of a major new examination of exercise and life expectancy.
In that study, published last week in PLoS Medicine, Dr. Lee and colleagues from the National Cancer Institute and other institutions compiled physical activity, body mass and mortality data for more than 650,000 American adults who'd participated in National Cancer Institute studies over the years.
The researchers compared the volunteers' activity levels against the current governmental recommendation of 150 minutes of moderate activity (like brisk walking) per week. They found that those who met the recommendation lived on average 3.4 years longer than people who didn't exercise. Those who ambitiously doubled the recommended amount of weekly exercise enjoyed additional gains in life span, but at a noticeably diminishing rate, typically living 10 months or so longer than those who just met the guidelines.
Even people who were overweight or obese lived longer if they exercised moderately, whether or not they lost weight during the study period.
Interestingly, the association between physical activity and longer life held true also for those volunteers who reported exercising only occasionally. "A very low level of activity, equivalent to 10 minutes per day of walking, was associated with a gain of almost two years of life expectancy," says Steven Moore, a research fellow with the National Cancer Institute, who led the study.
In fact, he says, "maximum longevity was reached at a physical activity level equivalent to 65 minutes per day of walking, with no evidence for gains above this level of activity."
What all of this suggests, Dr. Lee says, is "that physical activity, even at a modest level, can increase life expectancy."
But it's also probable, although not yet definitively proven, she continues, that "intense exercise gives additional benefit above the risk reduction afforded by energy expenditure alone."
In other words, pushing yourself during your next walk, bike ride or home-repair project might amplify the activity's longevity-enhancing benefits, Dr. Lee says. But if you don't wish to or cannot increase the intensity of your exercise, don't sweat it.
The largest gain in terms of adding years to someone's life, she says, comes in that space between "doing nothing to achieving the lower end of the activity scale," which makes even the usually tedious prospect of washing this morning's breakfast dishes more palatable.

2012年12月15日 星期六

全球疾病負擔研究/ 美人均壽命延長18% 歸功空氣污染減少

日本男、女全球最長壽 台女排第5





從2000年到2007年,用直徑小於2.5微米的顆粒物密度(PM 2.5)來測量的空氣污染程度持續降低,儘管降低的速度沒有20世紀八九十年代那樣快。但是,即使空氣污染程度降低的速度變慢,也顯然延長了人均預期壽命。
該報告資深作者、哈佛大學公共衛生學院生物統計學教授佛朗西斯卡·多米尼奇(Francesca Dominici)說,“這就意味着,儘管近幾年顆粒物污染降低的速度放慢了,儘管我們已經做了許多空氣治理工作,但繼續減少空氣污染還是很重要的。我們 的報告有力地證明,對減少空氣污染做額外投資是有益的。”

2012年12月14日 星期五

SKorea says Samsung chip plant caused cancer

SKorea says Samsung chip plant caused cancer

December 14, 2012
SEOUL, South Korea--A South Korean government agency said Dec. 14 that working at a Samsung Electronics factory caused the breast cancer of a worker who died earlier this year, only the second time it has recognized a link between cancer and Samsung's chip plants.
The Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service, which is part of the labor ministry, ruled earlier this month that there was a “considerable causal relationship” between the woman's cancer and her five years of work at a semiconductor plant near Seoul. The ruling didn't become public until Dec. 14 when the agency announced compensation for the woman's family.
Samsung spokesman James Chung said it will not appeal the government's decision. The company is the world's largest maker of computer memory chips.
There have been very few cases in South Korea in which a link between working conditions and cancer has been convincingly demonstrated. Nearly 30 South Koreans have filed claims with the agency that working at Samsung caused rare forms of disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors. Another dozen people whose claims were rejected by the agency have filed court appeals.
The Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service collects insurance fees from companies and makes rulings on whether diseases are caused by workplace hazards. Workers file industrial disease-related claims with the agency, not with their employer. Either party can appeal to the courts.
The woman, whose last name is Kim, died in March, age 36, three years after being diagnosed with breast cancer. Kim worked for Samsung from 1995 to 2000. Her first name was not released at her family's request.
The agency didn't say how much compensation was paid, but spokesman Kang Byung-soo said it usually amounts to nearly four years of a worker's salary.
“There was an exposure to organic solvents and radiation. The earlier the exposure is, the more likely the cancer is caused,” the workers compensation agency said in a statement about Kim's case.
It said it also reviewed records from overseas which showed that working night shifts is linked to a higher chance of breast cancer.
Kim, who worked eight to 12 hours a day, was often assigned night time shifts that started at 10 p.m. and ended at 6 in the morning, according to Lee Jong-ran, an official at SHAPRs, or Supporters for the Health And Rights of People in the Semiconductor industry.
Kim worked at a plant without a radiation detector and was exposed to benzene and other carcinogens, according to the activist group.
Lee said the latest decision will have a positive impact on Samsung employees who are hoping to prove a link between their diseases and working conditions at Samsung Electronics.
“Because the government recognized the link, people who have pending lawsuits will feel encouraged,” she said.
There have been three recent cases in which authorities recognized that working conditions at Samsung had contributed to diseases.
In April, the agency compensated a former Samsung worker who suffered from aplastic anemia. Last year, a Seoul court ruled that a Samsung semiconductor plant caused the cancer of two former employees. The agency, which had earlier rejected claims from the two workers, is appealing the court's decision.

2012年12月8日 星期六




幾十年來,女性一直被告知,保護健康最重要的事之一,就是進行常規的乳房X光檢查。但是在過去幾年,越來越清楚的是,這些乳房X光檢查並非像吹噓的 那樣神奇。最新的證據出現在周三出版的《新英格蘭醫學雜誌》(New England Journal of Medicine)刊登的一篇研究報告中,該研究由腫瘤學家阿爾希·布萊爾(Archie Bleyer)和我共同進行。
但其實,我們發現只有大約10萬名婦女免於被診斷為晚期乳腺癌。這個偏差意味着大量的過度診斷:超過100萬女性被告知她們患有早期癌症,她們中大 多數人經歷了手術、化學療法或者放射療法,來治療一種永遠都不會讓她們生病的“癌症”。雖然無從得知到底是哪些女性,但這還是構成了嚴重的危害。
我們不應該對過度診斷帶來的傷害感到驚訝。六年前,對一項隨機試驗進行的一次長期回訪表明,通過這種篩查診斷的癌症病例里,有大約四分之一屬於過度 診斷。該研究反映出的是1980年代乳房X光篩查的情況。更新的數字乳房X光檢查會檢測出更多的異常狀況,估計過度診斷的數量也相應上升:現在,有三分之 一到一半通過該檢查發現的癌症屬於過度診斷。
有關乳腺癌篩查的好處的報道也成問題。一些80年代進行的最初試驗表明,乳房X光檢查使乳腺癌死亡率降低了25%。這個數據後來成了一種共識。然而 在過去的兩年中,歐洲進行了三項調查,得出了完全不同的結論:乳房X光檢查對乳腺癌死亡率的降低或者只有有限的影響(降低了不到10%),或者根本沒有影 響。
原因在於,沒有其它的醫學檢查像乳房X光檢查這樣受到大力推廣——手段早已超越了說服建議,變成了誘發負罪心理,甚至是脅迫(“如果你不做篩查,我 就沒法接診。”)支持者使用了最具誤導性的檢查數據:存活率。近期,科曼(Komen)基金會的一場運動是該過程的一個典範:“早期檢測能夠挽救生命。乳 腺癌早期診斷的5年存活率是98%。否則呢?存活率會降低到23%。”
存活率必然隨早期診斷而上升:人們被診斷患有某種疾病越早,他們帶着這個診斷活得也就越久一些,即使這不能對他們的死亡時間產生一丁點的改變。而對 那些所患“癌症”但不會致其死亡的患者進行癌症診斷,也會使存活虛高——即使死亡病例數維持不變。總之,告訴所有人說他們都患有癌症,然後存活率就會飆 升。
乳房檢查的擁護者還鼓動公眾相信兩種明顯不屬實的情況。首先,他們鼓勵人們相信,每個經由乳房X光檢查確診的女性乳腺癌患者都保住了性命(想想那些 給乳腺癌倖存者的T恤,上面有一句話“乳房X光檢查能挽救生命,我就是證明。”)事實卻是,這些倖存者更可能是過度診斷的受害者。第二種說法是,一名死於 乳腺癌的患者如果能早些發現,那麼她“本來是可以得救的”。實情卻是,無論我們採取什麼措施,有不少乳腺癌是一定會致命的。
是什麼動機促使乳房檢查的支持者們採取這些策略?在很大程度上,是他們對早期診斷優點的真心信仰導致了這種結果。他們相信,乳腺癌篩查一定對女性有 利。30年前,我們剛開始推廣乳腺癌篩查的時候,他們這麼想可能是正確的。考慮到現在的已知情況,繼續這樣下去就是錯的了。讓我們原諒這些支持者,然後繼 續向前吧。
但醫務人員也可以做的更好。他們可以減少對輕微的癌症和癌前病變的關注,把更多的精力用於區分後果嚴重的癌症和無足輕重的腫瘤。我們必須重新設計乳 腺癌篩查的規程,減少過度診斷、或徹底停止全民性的檢查。可以只在可能致死的乳腺癌高危人群中實施檢查,包括對有突出的乳腺癌家族病史、或者有乳腺癌遺傳 性體質的人群中進行檢查。她們也是最有可能從檢查中獲益、最不可能被過度診斷的群體。
我還有最有一條請求:能不能不再把乳房X光檢查作為衡量我們醫療系統優劣的標準?乳房X光檢查已經開始看起來像個殘忍的笑話:說它殘忍,是因為它讓 醫生糾纏女性,直到她們順從地去檢查;說它是個笑話,是因為沒有人能表明,它是公共醫療體系的當務之急,或者是衡量醫療質量的有效標準。
可以說,對不吸煙的女性來說,乳腺癌是她們需要關注的最嚴重的癌症。當一名乳房長有腫塊的女性利用乳房X光檢查了解是否需要為腫塊擔憂時,診斷性的 乳房X光檢查就是一個重要的工具。沒有人對此持有異議。另一方面,防患於未然的乳房X光檢查至多就是個好壞參半的方案,它引發的健康問題,很可能比它所解 決的還要多。
吉爾伯特·韋爾奇(H. Gilbert Welch)是達特茅斯衛生政策與臨床診療研究所醫學教授,暨《過度診斷:讓人們在追求健康的途中病倒》(Overdiagnosed: Making People Sick in the Pursuit of Health)的作者。

Doha climate talks - Milestone or millstone?

Doha is the capital city of the state of Qatar. Located on the coast of the Persian Gulf, it had a population of 998,651 in 2008, and is also one of the municipalities of Qatar. Wikipedia
Area: 132.1 km²
Weather: 21°C, Wind N at 2 km/h, 78% Humidity
Local time: Sunday 5:52 AM

News for doha

  1. Doha Outcome: Kyoto Protocol Lives, Global Climate Deal by 2015

    Environment News Service ‎- 5 hours ago
    DOHA, Qatar, December 8, 2012 (ENS) – At the UN's annual climate change conference just concluded in Doha, 194 countries agreed to an ...
  1. Financial Times‎ - 6 hours ago

Redaktionshinweis: Verwendung des Bildes nur zur redaktionellen Berichterstattung und bei Nennung Ingo Strube/BMU +++ Bundesumweltminister Peter Altmaier (CDU, 2.v.l.) und der katarische Konferenzpraesident Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Attijah (r.) am Samstag (08.12.12) in Doha, Katar, auf der 18. UN-Klimakonferenz. Die Verhandlungen auf der Weltklimakonferenz in Doha stehen auf der Kippe. Nachdem der Praesident der Konferenz am Samstagmorgen neue Kompromissvorschlaege vorgelegt hatte, wurde die Sitzung daraufhin erneut unterbrochen. Bundesumweltminister Peter Altmaier (CDU) sprach von einer Reihe von Verbesserungen in den Vorlagen, raeumte aber auch ein, dass noch nichts entschieden sei, wie er im Kurznachrichtendienst Twitter schrieb. (zu dapd-Text)
Foto: Ingo Strube/BMU/dapd


Doha climate talks see success with Kyoto extension

Delegates at the Doha talks have agreed on the most important task at hand: an extension of the Kyoto Protocol. Mired in dissent, the UN talks aimed at tackling climate change had dragged on for far longer than expected.
The Kyoto extension will keep existing climate targets until a new international agreement comes into effect in 2020. Kyoto's expiry would have left the world without a legally binding framework to confront global warming.
The two-week UN meeting in the Qatari capital had been scheduled to end on Friday, but the talks finally concluded late Saturday when the agreement was reached.
After a long night of negotiating, conference chairman Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Attiyah of Qatar called international representatives to a plenary session at which he urged them to consider a set of compromise agreements.
"I believe that this is a package that we can all live with and which is also good for our planet and future generations," he told the delegates from nearly 200 countries, including dozens of cabinet ministers.
Delegates must sign off on a new term for the greenhouse-gas curbing Kyoto Protocol as an interim measure to rein in climate change due to be agreed on by 2015 and entered into force by 2020.
The 2015 deal would set goals for all nations, including emerging economies led by China and India that have no targets under Kyoto.
In a blow to the demands of developing nations for a clear timetable for a promised tenfold increase in aid to $100 billion (76.3 billion euros) a year by 2020, the draft deal merely agreed to put off decisions until 2013.
The draft deal would extend the Kyoto Protocol for eight years.

Doha delegates push for a last minute deal

If it is not extended, Kyoto will expire at the end of 2012. It has already been weakened by the withdrawals of Russia, Japan and Canada. The United States never ratified it, and its backers, led by the European Union and Australia, account for just 15 percent of world greenhouse gas emissions.
World carbon dioxide emissions are set to rise by 2.6 percent this year, and are more than 50 percent higher than in 1990. Recent growth has come mostly from emerging nations, led by China and India.
hc/jlw (Reuters, AFP, dpa)

GettyImages 91967128
NOTTINGHAM, ENGLAND - OCTOBER 17: A police officer stands guard during a climate change demonstration at Ratcliffe Power Station at Ratcliffe-on-Soar on October 17, 2009, Nottingham, England. Protesters scaled fences as they attempted to break into the power station to highlight their campaign to to close coal-fired power stations. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images)


Opinion: Doha - Milestone or millstone?

Much ado about nothing: Doha failed to fulfill the expectations and lead to a breakthrough. DW environment and climate correspondent Irene Quaile says it proves the ineffectiveness of UN climate negotiations.
The same procedure as every year: Some 20,000 people fly around the world. For two weeks, delegates negotiate and debate. Countries already suffering from the effects of climate change make appeals, while industrialized countries pursue their own interests. The biggest greenhouse gas polluters try to block decisions and environmental organizations call for action.
It's almost become a ritual for negotiations to drag on beyond their deadline. Climate ministers are able to demonstrate to the world media that they are rolling up their sleeves and staying up all night – in short, that they are doing everything to save the world from climate change.
Irene Quaile-Kersken Foto DW/Per Henriksen
In reality, it is no longer possible to achieve that with this event.
When the two big greenhouse gas polluters, China and the United States, are unwilling to accept binding emission targets, then two weeks of all-nighters won't change this position. When the US is paralyzed because of its budgetary crisis at home, then climate negotiators won't be able to pull a rabbit out of the hat. When the European Union is unable to commit its member Poland to a joint emissions target of 30 percent prior to the meeting and the fight drags on in Doha, then Europe is unable to take on a leading role at the annual mega conference.
Kyoto extension: mile stone or lowest common denominator?
The extension of the Kyoto Protocol until 2020 is widely seen by the participants as the summit's success. But the emission targets are weak and the Kyoto signatories are responsible for only 15 percent of global emissions.
Is that to be the basis for a new global climate agreement? In order to achieve a two-percent reduction, emissions have to be reduced by 85 to 90 percent by 2050. Instead, emissions are increasing.
Just in time for the summit's opening ceremony, the World Bank warned of a four degree temperature increase. Extreme weather events, droughts and floods will occur more frequently. The polar ice is melting. Sea levels are rising.
Those countries that are already most affected by climate change went away empty-handed.
From 2020, 100 billion dollars are supposed to be allocated annually for measures to protect the climate. How exactly this sum will be made available, remains unclear.
Annual mega events obsolete?
The decisions on how to save the climate have to be taken elsewhere: In national governments and parliaments, where short-term political and economic interests take precedence over global climate protection. Climate protection has to be put on the agendas of the G8 or G20, which decide on world affairs. Sustainable development is not achievable without the protection of the environment.
Developing countries cling to the UN negotiations, because they don't have a voice elsewhere. But what's the point of a voice in an ineffective forum that at the most reaches only lukewarm compromises?
Responsibility for global climate protection cannot be passed on to chief negotiators. Climate protection has to be made an integral part of daily politics. The shift from fossil fuels, the rapid development of renewable energies, a price tag for CO2 emissions and the allocation of funds to help developing countries survive the climate sins committed by industrial countries in the past – all of these measures have to be advanced elsewhere.
With due respect for the negotiators' hard work and good will, the UN climate conference runs the risk of turning into an annual alibi event, which diverts attention from the necessity of fast and sustainable action. This type of resource intensive mega event cannot save the global climate – and raises false hopes or even disillusionment in ordinary citizens. It's time for political and economic leaders to take action – and for consumers and voters to play a role.

2012年12月3日 星期一

螺栓老化未做檢查 山犁縣笹子隧道

螺栓老化未做檢查╱日隧道坍塌 導向人為疏失

〔駐 日特派員張茂森/東京3日報導〕日本中央自動車道(高速道路) 山犁縣笹子隧道昨天發生混凝土天花板崩塌,奪走9條人命,初步調查崩塌原因為吊撐天花板的鋼骨固定螺栓老化而脫落,日本國土交通省已下令6家高速公路公司 及掌管國道的各地方整備局,針對全國採同樣吊掛式天花板工法的40條高速公路,及9條國道隧道進行緊急檢修。日本警方也決定在搜救工作結束後,對該公司依 業務過失致死進行偵辦。
日政府下令 檢查全國隧道
日 本慶應大學的隧道結構安全專家指出,笹子隧道於1977年開通,混凝土天花板已有35年歷史,天花板上面與隧道頂端之間是以1根細鋼骨吊撐,鋼骨上端則以 2根長約15公分的螺栓鎖進隧道上壁,經過長時間後,螺栓可能因雨水而發生腐蝕,或車輛頻繁通過的震動而鬆垮,以手電筒照射隧道內部最頂端的目測法無法發 現,必須透過「打音檢查」,鬆垮或腐蝕的螺栓敲打出來的聲音不一樣,中日本高速道路的維修忽略打音檢查而釀成大禍。
日本全國採用鋼骨吊掛式 天花板工法的高速道路隧道共有49處,在笹子隧道事故發生後,日本政府已下令進行全面緊急檢修,檢修重點包括天花板吊掛的金屬零件及與隧道內部頂端結合的 部分,要以鐵鎚敲打以確認聲響或敲打觸感是否有異常情況。此外,也要採取觸診、近距離目測,調查是否有生鏽、裂縫等,在本月12日前提出檢修報告。
中 日本高速道路是2005年10月由前「日本高速道路公團」分割民營化之後的日本3個高速道路公司之一,其他2家公司則為東日本高速道路與西日本高速道路, 中日本高速道路管轄東名自動車道、名神自動車道和中央自動車道等21條路線,總長1900公里。該公司社長金子剛一今天親自在現場指揮,在記者會上也坦承 疏失,向社會大眾致歉。

2012年12月2日 星期日

眼睛的4個敵人/ 過勞 (轉載)

   是天氣霧濛濛,還是你的眼睛霧颯颯,眼睛怎麼揉,好像都看不清楚,小心出現視網膜脈絡膜炎,眼睛可是會過勞死,一個不小心視網膜血管阻塞,世界由彩色變 黯淡。國泰新竹分院醫生陳瑩山就發現,眼睛過勞患者越來越年輕,尤其碰上不景氣,人人怕放起無薪假工作特別拚,連續熬夜加班也讓眼睛跟著加班,病例也暴增 二到五成。

智慧型手機、壓力、陽光、三高,這四個敵人和現代人形影不離 ,躲也躲不掉 ,讓眼睛過勞,提早老化 ,眼睛疾病提前報到。

隨著智慧型手機日漸普及,產生了假性近視成人化以及老花眼年輕化兩大現象。 以往 ,假性近視只出現在兒童 ,成人視力已經趨於穩定,但眼科醫師們現在發現來看診的成年人近視的度數不對,點了散瞳劑之後,又回到原本的度數 ,表示假性近視也發生在成年人身上,後來一問才知道是智慧型手機的重度使用者。
另一個現象也是因為智慧型手機 ,以往是平均45歲以後老花眼才上身,現在許多人35歲上下就已經視茫茫了,研究也發現 ,智慧型手機、平版電腦導致眼睛疲勞、頭痛與慢性疲勞。
原因一是晃動。柏克萊大學眼科教授班克(Martin S. Bank)相信,當眼睛盯住螢幕 ,瞬間調整距離 ,這叫做「視軸調焦(vergence-accommodation)」,會造成眼睛不適,研究發表在《視覺期刊(Journal of Vision)》。馬偕醫院眼科主治醫師王馨儀解釋,就如同拍照時鏡頭一直晃,要不停對焦 ,眼部肌肉要更用力,當然會造成眼睛疲勞。
原因二是近距離。同樣是立體聲 ,受試者看著遠距離的電影,並不會覺得不舒服;當立體聲就在眼前,便會覺得不舒服。就是因為距離,當你用智慧型手機讀簡訊、whats App或上網時 ,眼睛會更疲勞。若仔細觀察旁人,你會發現他們都把手機拿近。當人們靠近眼睛用手機,意味眼睛工作得更累。
研究受試者發現 ,當人們讀報(平面印刷的報紙)通常保持距離眼睛16吋(約40公分)的距離,但傳簡訊時,平均拿14吋(約35.5公分) ,有些人甚至拿到7吋(17.8公分)。
如果你已經戴隱形眼鏡 ,情況更糟。 戴隱形眼鏡是為了看遠 ,現在用來看清智慧型手機上微小的字,造成眼睛酸麻、眼壓升高、慢性結膜炎、頭痛,甚至慢性疲勞。 「一大早眼睛就不舒服 ,」馬偕醫院眼科主治醫師王馨儀發現。過去眼睛疲勞常是用眼一天後,傍晚才出現,現在病人是抱怨一大早眼睛就不舒服,因為病人到辦公室前,往往在通勤途中已經用眼過度了。
王馨儀更擔心下一代 ,台灣近視年齡可能又大步向前。許多小娃兒兩、三歲就已經接觸了智慧型手機與平版電腦。但幼兒眼睛水晶體在五歲才會發育完全。已有臨床眼科醫師對媒體表示,發現兩歲女娃天天玩iPhone ,造成視力模糊 ,差點近視,也曾發現四歲兒童已經近視200度。
壓力會用各種方法傷害視力 ,從輕微的眼睛發紅、眼皮跳到視網膜病變都有。慢性的壓力讓你的眼睛無法好好休息,眼睛發紅、脹痛,「眼睛脹到快掉出來 ,」剛從新竹馬偕調回台北的王馨儀醫師描述病人,原本以為眼壓過高,有青光眼的疑慮 ,其實是用眼疲勞而已。  眼皮跳,學名是眼瞼抽搐(eyelid twitching)其實也和壓力有關,會持續數小時甚至數天,通常不需治療 ,若超過一周,醫生有可能開立鎮定劑或用肉毒桿菌素治療。
壓力也可能導致血壓升高 ,中央視網膜動脈阻塞缺血,造成單眼突然發生無痛的視力減退或喪失,也就是眼中風。眼中風也會反覆發作,更是腦中風的預警。
中心性漿液性視網膜病變更好發在3040歲的男性青壯年,那是因為在視網膜前有一層膜,稱為脈絡膜 ,兩層膜之間滲水,造成視力轉暗、變小,甚至變形 ,通常是單眼發生,嚴重影響近距離的用眼工作。眼睛突然看不清,妨礙衝刺事業的青壯年。
這拗口的疾病目前原因不明 ,有人認為與壓力有關。王馨儀醫師說,雖然八、九成病人在6個月內眼睛會自行吸收滲水而痊癒,但有少部分人會反覆發作,造成黃斑部永久性病變。
我們知道要幫皮膚防曬 ,其實眼睛也非常需要防曬。短時間曝曬在太陽下,可能引起角膜炎,也就是角膜因陽光曝曬引起的發炎,就是一種「眼睛曬傷」,眼睛會模糊、痛、畏光、流淚。  長期的曝曬就很嚴重。發表在《眼科學檔案(The Archives of Ophthalmology)》的研究發現 ,青少年時期常曬太陽的人,到了30歲以後會增加兩倍罹患早期白內障的風險。
現在科學已經知道 ,陽光中只要少量的紫外線,所以就算是陰天也會,數年後就可能傷害視網膜 ,這充滿上百萬個感光細胞的地方,而且這種傷害是不可逆的。除了陽光,台灣還有一群年輕的黃斑部病變病人是因為工作中強光所致。
王馨儀醫師發現 ,許多光電業的從業人員本來就高度近視,加上在強光下又用眼過度,使黃斑部提早出現病變,最終會影響視力喪失。另外,長期在陽光下工作或駕車,不少人四、五十歲就發生白內障病變,需要置換人工水晶體的地步。
偏偏台灣人的糖尿病控制不佳 ,讓眼睛泡在糖水裡。國民健康局的追蹤調查發現,高達七成糖化血色素(糖尿病患血糖控制主要指標)未達7 ,控制不佳 ,如同水土保持不良 ,未來併發更多疾病。
由於肥胖人口增多 ,糖尿病發病也年輕化。過去罹病的高危險群是4050歲,許多人比父母那代提前十年,3040歲就罹病 ,提前發病造成併發症如視網膜病變、腎臟病等,都可能提前發生,影響人生黃金歲月。
也有愈來愈多證據證明 ,黃斑部病變和心血管疾病有關,也就是和高血壓、高膽固醇、高BMI ,也就是和肥胖相關。
除了糖尿病外 ,高血壓、高血脂也提高眼中風的風險。偏偏台灣400萬名高血壓患者中,有一半不知道自己高血壓;也有180萬人有高血脂問題。長期血管壁堆積並形成斑塊,使血管壁變厚、變硬或阻塞,發生在視網膜動脈 ,便是眼中風。
眼睛雖然只占身體的一小部分 ,卻是人類探索世界的觸角,況且,終身學習的時代更需要眼睛接收萬千資訊。
四個敵人讓眼睛在3040歲就提前老化 ,若眼睛一老 ,大腦就跟著老,難以實現人生下半場的精采。
擊退這四個眼睛新敵 ,保護辛苦的眼睛 ,早一天做 ,眼睛和大腦就晚一天變老。  每天保養1分鐘 視力變年輕
失去視力是件悲慘的事 ,但視力是可以保護的,而且是你自己的事,沒人可逼你。只要每天1分鐘 ,可以幫你即便八、九十歲,還可以用機智的話語、迷人的眼睛凝視對方。
台灣新竹國泰綜合醫院眼科主任陳瑩山從口袋拿出藥盒,他每天早餐都吃葉黃素,三餐都吃魚油。因為研究已經證明,葉黃素與魚油是兩個唯一可進入眼睛黃斑部的營養素。不過,除了吃保健食品,從食物中攝取葉黃素並不困難。  台灣大學農化系營養學博士吳映蓉最愛吃菠菜炒玉米再灑幾顆枸杞,不僅顏色漂亮,可以吃到葉黃素、玉米黃素。而傳統的枸杞已經被現代醫學證實,含有大量的葉黃素與玉米黃素,足以保護眼睛。
一杯含大量綠、黃色蔬菜的精力湯 ,也是補充葉黃素好選擇。
台北市立聯合醫院曾經考慮試賣精力湯 ,營養師們試喝不同口味的精力湯,出乎意料地,幾天下來大夥突然發現自己變得眼聰目明。  至於補充魚油,《超完美Omega飲食》的作者、前美國白宮營養顧問西莫波羅絲(Artemis P. Simopoulos)建議 ,一周至少吃兩次高脂魚 ,包括鮭魚、鮪魚、鯖魚、秋刀魚等。

台北馬偕醫院眼科主治醫師王馨儀認為 ,熱敷促進眼周血液循環,可以幫助眼睛放鬆休息。但如果眼睛出現浮腫、乾癢、疲勞等症狀,可以改為先冷敷緩解症狀後,再熱敷。
不過她更推薦用自己的毛巾熱敷 ,因為毛巾有濕氣,更可保持眼部濕潤,用自己的毛巾 ,又更環保。上班族中午休息時間就可以熱敷,晚上回家再敷一次。
眼科醫師張朝凱戴著眼鏡 ,很多人誤以為他幫病人開近視雷射手術,自己卻沒用這技術。殊不知他在美國學習雷射時,就已經動了眼睛雷射手術,眼鏡是變色眼鏡 ,為了躲太陽。
夏日陽光赤炎炎 ,具防UV的太陽眼鏡不可少,但陰天外出也要戴太陽眼鏡。眼睛經常接受紫外線照射,會引起水晶體中的水分及蛋白質變異,而且只要微量的紫外線也足以傷害眼睛。眼鏡要愈大愈好,像個怕被人認出的大明星,鏡片則是灰色、棕色濾掉光線的效果佳。藍色、紅色、粉紅色的鏡片則不建議。
而且一定要確認太陽眼鏡具有抗UV效果 ,如果沒有,又配戴深色鏡片,瞳孔會放大 ,讓更多紫外線進入眼睛。若不確定,可以到眼鏡行用儀器測試。
王馨儀醫師說 ,視神經是末梢神經 ,能促進血液循環的運動,都有助於眼睛。而且,運動時不時看遠看近 ,總會放鬆到睫狀肌。
況且三高現在也是眼睛的敵人 ,糖尿病控制不好,糖尿病視網膜病變來報到。高血壓、高血脂、高膽固醇也和黃斑部病變有關。用運動控制好體重,總沒錯。此外,用手機定時 ,每隔一小時提醒你 ,做做眼睛的抒壓運動,眼睛也會感謝你。「坐久了,身體都要伸一下懶腰,眼睛也需要 ,」王馨儀醫師說。
遮住一隻眼 ,另一眼看遠、看近 ,再換眼,至少視線暫時離開電腦。或是辦公桌放些賞心悅目的小東西如家人照片或綠色植物,將目光移到心愛的物品上,讓眼睛稍做休息。台北市立聯合醫院仁愛院區院長翁林仲的作法也很值得參考。他每接起手機,就會藉此離開座位,走到窗邊講電話 ,一邊望向遠方,眼睛比較不會疲累。