2012年10月27日 星期六

Japan quake-hit nuclear plant "may still be leaking radiation" into sea

Japan quake-hit nuclear plant "may still be leaking radiation" into sea

TOKYO | Fri Oct 26, 2012 8:29am EDT
Oct 26 (Reuters) - The operator of Japan's quake-struck Fukushima nuclear power plant said on Friday it could not rule out the possibility that it may still be leaking radiation into the sea.
A massive earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 triggered fuelrod meltdowns at the plant, causing radiation leakage, contamination of food and water and mass evacuations, although the government declared in December that the disaster was under control.
The comment by Tokyo Electric Power Co follows a U.S. academic journal Science article that said high radiation levels in bottom-dwelling fish caught off Fukushima prefecture indicate continued radiation leaking from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
Asked if Tokyo Electric, also known as Tepco, could confirm that the plant is not leaking radiation into the sea any more, a spokeswoman said: "Tepco cannot say such a thing, but we have confirmed that radiation levels are declining in both the sea water and seabed soil around the plant."
Ken Buesseler, senior scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution of the United States, said in his article on the Science website that little change in radioactive caesium levels found in Fukushima fish suggested a continued leak.
"The fact that many fish are just as contaminated today with caesium 134 and caesium 137 as they were more than one year ago implies that caesium is still being released to the food chain," he said.
Fishing off Fukushima prefecture, north of Tokyo, is prohibited except for test fishing for a few species such as certain types of octopus and squid, which are shipped only when they are found to be safe. (Reporting by Kiyoshi Takenaka and Aaron Sheldrick; Editing by Nick Macfie)

2012年10月24日 星期三

南韓「辛拉麵」 致癌物質「苯並 芘」(Benzopyrene)

辛拉麵製造商// 韓6款泡麵 驗出致癌物

韓稱泡麵沒訂標 未要求下架

〔編 譯林翠儀、記者楊雅民、鍾麗華、楊久瑩/綜合報導〕南韓農心公司生產的知名「辛拉麵」,今年六月被南韓媒體踢爆,其中有六款拉麵被驗出含有致癌物質「苯並 芘」(Benzopyrene),但南韓食品藥品安全廳則以沒有泡麵的檢測標準為由,未做處理,農心亦未決定下架與否。
「辛 拉麵」台灣代理商星禾國際表示,這六款泡麵中,台灣只進口了「爽口海鮮烏龍麵」和「香辣海鮮烏龍麵」二款,今天會將這二款泡麵送到SGS台灣檢驗科技公司 檢驗,如果檢驗結果未達標準,將會全面下架,以確保消費者安全。家樂福公關經理何默真表示,昨晚六時接獲訊息後 ,已將架上的二款泡麵全數下架,消費者若已購買,也可以憑規定退換貨。愛買公關經理楊冬寧指出,賣場僅進口其中一款泡麵,目前已下架。
台灣進口兩款 兩大賣場下架
MBC 報導指出,農心拉麵在六月被驗出含有致癌物質後,南韓官方及農心公司並未採取積極措施。官方甚至表示,南韓現行法規對於食用油、奶粉及魚類等,均訂有檢出 標準,但不包括泡麵湯,而且全世界也沒有國家對加工食品訂有苯並芘檢出標準,農心拉麵驗出的苯並芘數值對人體不會產生危害。
衛生署食品藥物 管理局北區管理中心主任潘志寬表示,苯並芘是燃燒後的環境污染物,可能是空氣、土壤或水遭污染後,進而污染泡麵的調味料。目前韓國僅柴魚粉訂出 10ppb(1ppb=1mg/ L)的殘留標準,韓國政府至今亦未要求辛拉麵下架。台灣目前沒有苯並芘標準,無法立即要求業者回收下架,不過,今天會確認泡麵殘留量,並以TDI(每日可 容許攝取量)來計算,了解是否對人體危害。
苯並芘 世衛列為一級致癌物
煙燻食物常見 消基會促訂標
農 心以檢驗數據說明,韓國民眾一天從烤肉攝取的苯並芘量約為0.08ug(1mg=1000ug),韓國食品藥品安全廳認為,食用泡麵調味包一天的苯並芘攝 取量只有0.00005ug,烤肉的苯並芘量是調味包的一萬六千倍。農心強調,今年六月被檢出有苯並芘含量的調味包,當時已全數銷毀,農心並更換供應商。 事後該公司相關產品就未檢出該成分。

Food labelling: Consistent system 'to start next year'

Food labelling: Consistent system 'to start next year'

Man in a supermarket

Related Stories

A consistent system of front-of-pack food labelling will be introduced in the UK next year, the government says.
A combination of guideline daily amounts, colour coding and "high, medium or low" wording will be used to show how much fat, salt and sugar and how many calories are in each product.
The scheme will be voluntary, but ministers are confident they have the food industry on board.
Talks will take place later this week over the exact design of the labels.


Despite the government's confident announcement, this is still not quite a done deal.
Within the food industry - and particularly among manufacturers rather than the supermarkets themselves - there are still grumblings about front-of-pack labelling.
But after years of discussions and research and a detailed consultation over the summer, ministers are effectively sticking their necks out to force the sector over the line.
Talks are due to take place on Thursday and by making this announcement now it puts the pressure on industry representatives to sign up.
If a consistent system is not in place by the summer of next year the government will feel it can lay the blame elsewhere.
If those discussions go well it could mark the end of what has been a long-running campaign to introduce front-of-pack labelling.
The issue has been under discussion for the past decade with campaigners seeing it as a way of tackling the rising rates of obesity.
But the introduction of a consistent system has proved difficult, and instead a range of different labels have gradually been introduced over the years.
Some retailers and manufactures have used "traffic-light" labelling, in which the least healthy foods are labelled red and the most healthy are in green, while others use guideline daily amounts - or GDAs - which give the percentage of recommended intake. Some use both.
There has also been confusion over how a system could be introduced.
To make it mandatory, regulations would have to be agreed on a European level, but agreement between countries has been hard to reach.
The situation meant the UK government sought to introduce a voluntary system.
'Big impact' It carried out a consultation on the issue over the summer, which paved the way for this announcement.
Public Health Minister Anna Soubry said: "The UK already has the largest number of products with front-of-pack labels in Europe, but research has shown that consumers get confused by the wide variety of labels used.

Guideline daily amounts (GDA)

Source: Institute of Grocery Distribution
Children (5-10 years)
Calories (kcal)
"By having a consistent system we will all be able to see, at a glance, what is in our food. This will help us all choose healthier options and control our calorie intake.
"Obesity and poor diet cost the NHS billions of pounds every year. Making small changes to our diet can have a big impact on our health and could stop us getting serious illnesses - such as heart disease - later in life."
She said she expected the new system to be in use by the summer of 2013.
Prof Alan Maryon-Davis, an expert in health promotion from King's College London and a former president of the UK Faculty of Public Health, said: "This is welcome news - at long last.
"The Food Standards Agency recommended this scheme years ago - but a few big retailers succeeded in blocking it until now.
"This is a triumph for public health and common sense - but just goes to show how the voluntary approach can be so much slower than government regulation."
But Barbara Gallani, of the Food and Drink Federation, said the industry in the UK had "led the way" on the issue.
She added: "Our members are committed to continuing to provide clear nutrition information to consumers and we well be actively engaged in further discussions with the Department of Health following today's announcement."

2012年10月22日 星期一

口氣揭示的健康問題What Your Breath Reveals






克 利夫蘭診所勒納研究所(Cleveland Clinic's Lerner Research Institute)肺血管項目主任拉伊德•德維克(Raed A. Dweik)表示﹐“只要存在易揮發成分﹐任何可以進行血液測試的東西﹐都有希望通過呼吸測試檢測出來。”


有 時候﹐呼吸檢測甚至能做到血液檢測做不到的事情。在《胸腔腫瘤雜志》(Journal of Thoracic Oncology)本月刊登的一篇研究論文中﹐以色列和科羅拉多州的研究人員報告稱﹐對72名患者的研究顯示﹐呼吸分析可以區分良性和惡性肺結節﹐準確率 高達88%﹔呼吸檢測還可能評估肺癌的具體類型和階段。

加州大學 (University of California)機械與航空航天工程學科的教授克里斯蒂娜•戴維斯(Cristina Davis)表示﹐“其靈感來自三錄儀(Star Trek Tricorder)﹐理想的效果是只要患者對著一個設備吹口氣﹐這個設備就會跳出一個信號﹐顯示患者存在哪些健康問題。”戴維斯博士在本月召開的一次呼 吸分析國際大會上擔任聯席主席。

戴維斯博士還在開發一種便攜式的小兒哮喘監控儀。這種監控儀像手機大小﹐帶有一根管子﹐便於兒童在一天中 的任意時間朝裡面吹氣。該儀器可分析患兒呼氣中的一氧化氮含量(炎症指標)﹐然後將數據傳送給醫生﹐以便醫生視情況調整用藥。(這種儀器跟一般的最大呼氣 流量計不同﹐後者主要幫助哮喘病患者測定其肺活量。)


就 像指紋一樣﹐每個人的呼吸特徵都是獨一無二的﹐其中不僅含有氧氣、氮氣和二氧化碳﹐還含有揮發性的有機化合物。這些來自體內外的化學物質在室溫下就會蒸發 ﹐大部分呼吸氣味都由它們決定。呼出的氣體還含有非揮發性的化合物﹐例如極微量的蛋白質、抗體、口、脫氧核糖核酸(DNA)等﹐它們也含有大量能夠透露健 康狀況的信息。


患 者的心率、年齡和其他健康狀況同樣會對其呼出氣體的成分產生影響﹐因此研究人員很難在臨床試驗中獲取一致的結果。德維克博士稱﹐“要使醫生和美國食品藥品 監督管理局(FDA)信服這個理論﹐我們必須解釋清楚我們所吸入的化合物到底是什麼﹐以及這些化合物與人體疾病之間為什麼存在關聯﹐它們又是如何產生關聯 的。”

有些呼吸分析方法需要結合服用某種“引子”物質。例如﹐檢測患者體內是否存在幽門螺旋桿菌(可導致消化性潰瘍)時﹐會要求患者先服 用一粒用碳同位素做標記的尿素膠囊。如果患者體內存在幽門螺旋桿菌﹐尿素就會被其分解為二氧化碳﹐通過血液進入肺部。這時在患者呼出的氣體中﹐便可檢測到 碳同位素。


正 因如此﹐很多專家認為呼吸檢測的未來取決於“傳感器陣列”(又稱“電子鼻”)﹐這種方法可以識別特定的呼吸模式﹐就像人類和動物無需瞭解其中的化學組成也 可識別出熟悉的氣味一樣。傳感器陣列儀器的體積比質譜分析設備小﹐價格也較低﹐可以安放在患者的床頭﹐實時監控並顯示檢測結果。但與人類和動物一樣﹐這種 儀器也需要事先接受訓練或編程﹐以瞭解應該識別哪些呼吸模式。

在克利夫蘭診所呼吸系統疾病研究所(Cleveland Clinic's Respiratory Institute)﹐肺癌項目主任彼得•馬佐尼(Peter Mazzone)正在測試的一種傳感器陣列儀器由位於加州山景城(Mountain View)的診斷設備公司Metabolomx製造﹐當患者的呼吸吹過時﹐該儀器會變換顏色。據《胸腔腫瘤雜志》去年12月份發表的一項研究報告﹐這種儀 器在針對229名患者的測試中顯示出識別肺癌的效果﹐識別準確度為80%。一個範圍更大、敏感度更高的臨床試驗目前正在進行中。

與此同時 ﹐馬佐尼博士及其同事正在盡可能多地收集患者呼吸樣本﹐收集工作不僅限於癌症患者﹐以便研究出更多更具體的呼吸模式﹐應用在未來的呼吸檢測中。他舉例說道 ﹐“我希望達到的效果是﹐當面對一位有長達30年吸煙史、患有肺氣腫的60歲老人﹐我們的傳感器陣列儀能夠判斷出這個人罹患癌症的幾率有多大。但首先﹐我 們必須讓這個儀器知道﹐如果此人患有癌症﹐其呼吸模式應該是怎樣的。”




What Your Breath Reveals
Melinda Beck
 It's the ultimate
noninvasive medical test: A growing number of health problems can be diagnosed by analyzing a patient's breath alone.

The concept goes back to Hippocrates, who wrote a treatise on breath aroma and disease around 400 B.C. For centuries afterward, doctors noticed that patients with liver and kidney disorders had distinctive smells to their breath.

Now, scientists are identifying thousands of chemical compounds that create those telltale odors. Tools called mass spectrometers can detect them in quantities as minute as parts per trillion, the equivalent of finding a single ping-pong ball in a thousand baseball fields filled with ping-pong balls.

And researchers are developing tests that can diagnose and monitor not just liver and kidney disorders, but also asthma, diabetes, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections─even the rejection of transplanted organs─by analyzing biomarkers in exhaled breath.

'Anything you can have a blood test for, there is potentially a breath test for, as long as there is a volatile component,' says Raed A. Dweik, director of the pulmonary vascular program at the Cleveland Clinic's Lerner Research Institute.

Breath tests are also painless, faster to return results and potentially less expensive than blood tests─and easy to repeat as often as needed, even while patients are sleeping or exercising.

And some go well beyond what blood tests can do. In a study in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology this month, researchers from Israel and Colorado reported that breath analysis could distinguish between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules in a group of 72 patients with 88% accuracy; the test could also assess the specific type and stage of the lung cancers.

'The Holy Grail is the Star Trek Tricorder concept, where you would breathe into a device and a sign would pop up saying what health problems you have,' says Cristina Davis, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the University of California, Davis, who is co-chairing an international conference on breath analysis later this month.

Dr. Davis is also developing a portable pediatric asthma monitor. The cellphone-like device would have a tube that children could breathe into during the day; it would analyze the level of nitric oxide in their breath, an indicator of inflammation, and transmit the data to their doctors to aid in fine tuning their medication. (This is different than the simple peak-flow meters that most asthmatics use to measure how quickly air can be blown from their lungs.)

Many of these breath tests are still in the research stage and need to be standardized and validated in large clinical trials before they will be ready for use in doctors' offices. Meanwhile, scientists are still cataloging the thousands of different molecules in exhaled breath and determining what concentrations are normal and what indicate health problems.

Every individual has a unique breath signature─like a fingerprint─that contains not only oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide but also volatile organic compounds. Those are chemicals from inside and outside the body that evaporate at room temperature and are the source of most breath odors. Exhaled breath also contains nonvolatile compounds─microscopic droplets of proteins, antibodies, peptides and DNA that contain a wealth of additional health information.

Exhaled breath also contains a host of 'confounders' inhaled from the ambient air─including molecules of pollution, paint, furniture, even carpet fibers─that can interfere with breath sampling. In fact, what people eat, what medications they take and how often they brush their teeth can all affect their breath signature.

So can patients' heart rates, ages and other health conditions, making it difficult for researchers to get consistent results in clinical trials. 'For doctors and the FDA to buy into this concept,' says Dr. Dweik, 'we have to tell them what we are smelling and why and how that compound is related to the disease process.'

Some forms of breath analysis require a tagging material. Patients tested for Helicobacter pylori, the gut bacteria behind peptic ulcers, swallow a capsule containing urea, made from a carbon isotope. If H. pylori is present, it breaks up the urea into carbon dioxide, which travels through the blood to the lungs. The isotope can then be detected in the patient's exhaled breath.

Other breath tests use various forms of mass spectrometry, that can identify and measure specific volatile organic compounds. Scientists say mass spectrometry is a billion times more sensitive than the breath analyzers used by police to detect blood-alcohol levels, but it is also expensive and cumbersome.

That is why many experts believe that the future of breath testing lies in the use of sensor arrays (or 'electronic noses') that can recognize patterns in exhaled breath the way people and animals can identify familiar smells without knowing the chemical compounds that create them. Sensor arrays are smaller and less expensive than mass spectrometers and portable enough to be administered at a patient's bedside with the results given in real time. But like humans and animals, they need to be trained, or programmed, to know what patterns to look for.

At the Cleveland Clinic's Respiratory Institute, Peter Mazzone, director of the lung cancer program, is testing a sensor array that changes color when a patient's breath passes over it, made by Metabolomx, a Mountain View, Calif.-based diagnostic company. In a study of 229 patients reported in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology in December, the test was able to distinguish those with lung cancer with 80% accuracy. A larger trial with a far more sensitive version of the test is under way.

At the same time, Dr. Mazzone and his colleagues are collecting breath samples from as many patients as possible, with and without lung cancer, in order to develop still more specific patterns for breath tests to look for in the future. 'My vision is being able to say, 'This is a 60-year old with emphysema who smoked for 30 years─what's the chance of there being cancer there?' But we have to teach the device what it looks like first.'

He and other experts hope that breath tests can be used in conjunction with CT scans to cut down on the number of unnecessary biopsies. 'If you do a CT scan of the lungs and find a nodule, but the breath test was negative, you could say, 'I don't need a biopsy now. I'll follow it up in six months',' Dr. Mazzone says.

Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic and elsewhere are also studying breath tests for breast and colon cancer, which send similar telltale compounds through the blood stream and out in exhaled breath.

Many hurdles remain in getting such tests standardized and validated, but research is moving rapidly. Says Dr. Davis: 'The field is at the point where we'll start to see some exciting developments in the next one to four years.'

療養院火警: 行政院衛生署新營醫院北門分院


署新北門分院附設療養院火警 11名老人嗆傷失去生命跡象

2012年10月23日 06:37
  • 行政院衛生署新營醫院北門分院(圖/署新北門分院官網)






2012年10月21日 星期日

日學者:台灣北部若核災3萬人瞬間亡 中国迈向核电大国,谁来保障核安全?

Ohi nuclear power plant is seen after its No. 3 rector, right, returned to operation in Ohi town, Fukui prefecture, western Japan, Sunday, July 1, 2012. The reactor restarted Sunday, the first to go back online since Japan shut down all of its reactors for safety checks following the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (Foto:Kyodo News/AP/dapd) JAPAN OUT, MANDATORY CREDIT, NO LICENSING IN CHINA, HONG KONG, JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA AND FRANCE/eingest. sc




(德国之声中文网)多家中国媒体报道,环保部的一系列核电审批,再一次加快了中国核电重启进度。 10月15日,环保部拟对辽宁省红沿河核电厂一、二号机组项目环境影响报告书作出批复决定。这是环保部自9月以来密集审批了一批核电资质之后的又一批复项 目。另据新华网报道,10月25日-26日,第二届在建核电厂经验反馈交流会将在杭州召开,在业内人士看来,这将是核电项目重启的一个明显信号。
日本福岛核事故发生之后,2011年3月16日,国务院出台了核电"国四条",要求进行全面安全大检查,在"核安全规划"批准之前,暂停审批核电项目,包 括开展前期工作的项目。据"中国数字时代"消息,10月16日,环保部公布的《核安全与放射性污染防治"十二五"规划及2020年远景目标》显示:受日本 福岛核灾影响,中国原本已经中止反应炉建设的执行,但目前已经打算重新启动核反应堆建设工作。报告也表示中国实际运行的核反应炉型号比较多,因此在中国境 内制定安全标准的机制更趋复杂,现中国核能安全的形势不太乐观。


中国核电从28年前的秦山一期核电站开始,近年中国内陆和沿海如江西、广东、辽宁等省争相上马核电项目曾引环保人士担忧;2011年3月,欧盟多个国家要 求取消核电;2011年4月,深受福岛核泄露之殇的日本宣布"无核化";同年5月,德国环境部长宣布在2022年前关闭所有核电站。
在世界各国纷纷表示"去核"之时,今年8月,曾任中国核工业总公司副总经理、国家原子能机构主任、现任中国核能行业协会理事长的张华祝向媒体表示:"中国 迈入核电大国的步伐并没有停顿"。《南华早报》表示"虽然核行业官员和核电公司高管看好核电发展前景,但专家认为国内外民众普遍质疑核项目安全,因此内地 当局将被迫缩减核发展规模。"
An anti-nuclear protester holds a flag reading: No Nukes during a demonstration in Tokyo July 29, 2012. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda's post-Fukushima nuclear energy policy will be on trial in a local governor's election on Sunday, where an upset victory by a renewable energy candidate would deal Noda's wobbly administration a new blow. REUTERS/Yuriko Nakao (JAPAN - Tags: POLITICS ENERGY CIVIL UNREST BUSINESS) 日本民众"反核电"运动
中国环境科学研究院研究员赵章元在接受德国之声采访时也表示,大规模上马的核电有可能隐藏安全危机,在世界各国都取消核电项目之时,中国政府先宣布核电禁 令,再到大步迈向核电大国到底是经济发展的需要,还是利益集团在其中分割利益:"中国在管理上比较混乱,有一些规划,但在具体实施的时候,很可能被某一部 分的利益所牵制,以后又可能改变,不光核电项目,很多项目都是盲目行动,在环保问题上,我们只能去提些建议,但往往政府不理睬。"
A protester with a painting of a nuclear sign takes part in an anti-nuclear demonstration in Tokyo July 1, 2012. Kansai Electric Power Co restarted the 1,180-megawatt No.3 unit at its Ohi plant on Sunday, Japan's first nuclear reactor to come back online since the Fukushima crisis. REUTERS/Yuriko Nakao (JAPAN - Tags: POLITICS ENERGY DISASTER CIVIL UNREST) 日本反核电人士

日學者:台灣北部若核災3萬人瞬間亡 【2012/10/20 19:20】

〔本報訊〕如果台灣北部的核電廠出包,北部至少會有3萬人瞬間死亡,後續因核電輻射外洩而罹癌的民眾,將高達700萬人,日本核工學者小出裕章今(20) 日出席「2012非核家園國際論壇」,發表「我所看到的核電真相」一文,強調台灣興建核電廠是非常危險的事。




 小出裕章說,核四廠附近人口稠密,地方狹小,若北部核電廠發生輻射外洩,短期內難以疏散居民,避難效率幾乎是零,萬一真的出包,瞬間死亡至少會有3萬 人,包括台北市、新北市永和、中和、板橋、三重、蘆洲和平溪,都在死亡範圍內,更可怕的是,後續罹癌人數恐高達700萬人。

 前行政院長謝長廷則表示核能發電有危險,反核四公民投票很重要,希望順利通過。歌手陳昇也說,「他們(政府官員、台電人員等)貴為哈佛等名校博士,聰明 絕頂,應該比他更能分辨『核廢料是永世無法解決』問題。」他並指出,既然那麼(指核廢料)安全,就放在總統府就好,怎麼會把核廢料拿到蘭嶼去?

2012年10月20日 星期六



更新時間 2012年10月20日, 格林尼治標準時間14:43


中國人最憂心腐敗和食品安全中共18大舉行前夕,一項問卷調查顯示,腐敗和食品安全是最讓中國人感到擔心的問題。同時對美國的民主制度抱有好感的人在增加。(德國之聲中文網)美國著名調研機構皮尤研究中心週二公佈的問卷結果表明,約52%的受訪者對美國式民主持積極評價。報告作者指出,年輕的、受過良好教育的城市富裕階層尤其欽佩美國的某些"軟實力",許多人欣賞美國的科技成就。信心下降調查發現,人們對中國包括政府機構和醫療系統在內的公共服務體制的信心不如從前,認為中國社會面臨不斷增長的嚴峻挑戰。尤其是經濟快速增長帶來的負面效應,如貧富差距擴大、腐敗、物價上漲和環境污染等,成為中國人最主要的擔憂。皮尤2008年開始在中國進行類似的問卷調查。研究者發現,人們對一些領域的評價趨於悲觀。例如本次有近一半被調查者認為,官員腐敗已成為一個非常嚴重的問題,比2008年上升了11個百分點;4年前有五分之一的人認為經濟界的腐敗是一個巨大問題,而如今有三分之一的人持這一看法。近期通過社交網絡曝光的一系列腐敗和濫用權力的醜聞激起民眾的不滿。例如有關中共中央辦公廳主任令計劃之子駕駛法拉利車禍身亡的傳聞,以及地方官員佩戴奢侈名表遭網民痛斥和譏諷的事件。更為驚心動魄的當然是薄熙來家族的政治驚悚劇。人們對三聚氰胺奶粉還記憶猶新還能吃什麼?另一個明顯的變化是人們對食品安全的憂慮升高。在"地溝油"、"毒膠囊"等醜聞頻頻曝光的今天,認為食品安全是一個嚴重問題的人的比例比4年前劇增了30%。總體看,不少在2008年被受訪者歸為"中等嚴重"的問題,今天已經變得"非常嚴重",除食品安全外,還有環境污染、教育、醫療體系、勞動者權利、收入不均等。通貨膨脹仍是中國人最擔心的問題之一。 92%的受訪者認為,物價上漲令人擔憂。儘管中國消費者價格指數的增長率已從今年年初的4.5%下降到9月份的1.9%,但關係到民眾日常生活的食品價格與去年相比仍上漲了5.5%。同時在參加調查者中有一半的人認為,貧富差別是一個嚴重的問題。憂慮之一-物價調查顯示,中國人對中美關係不如幾年前樂觀。只有39%的人認為中美關係是合作性的關係,低於2010年的68%。儘管對美國民主抱有好感的人比例增加,但只有38%的人相信美國總統奧巴馬有能力在國際事務中正確處理有關問題,在3年前這一比例還高達62%。此次問卷調查對3177名受訪者作了面對面的採訪,由北京零點調查公司在今年3月到4月間在中國多個城市進行。 《華爾街日報》中文網援引皮尤全球調查項目副主任韋克(Richard Wike)表示,在中國人的生活不斷改善的同時,他們對自己的國家存在的問題也越來越不滿。而許多擔憂都與公平有關。綜合報導:葉宣責編:雨涵


皮尤2008年开始在中国进行类似的问卷调查。研究者发现,人们对一些领域的评价趋于悲观。例如本次有近一半被调查者认为,官员腐败已成为一个非常严重的 问题,比2008年上升了11个百分点;4年前有五分之一的人认为经济界的腐败是一个巨大问题,而如今有三分之一的人持这一看法。
另一个明显的变化是人们对食品安全的忧虑升高。在"地沟油"、"毒胶囊"等丑闻频频曝光的今天,认为食品安全是一个严重问题的人的比例比4年前剧增了 30%。总体看,不少在2008年被受访者归为"中等严重"的问题,今天已经变得"非常严重",除食品安全外,还有环境污染、教育、医疗体系、劳动者权 利、收入不均等。
通货膨胀仍是中国人最担心的问题之一。92%的受访者认为,物价上涨令人担忧。尽管中国消费者价格指数的增长率已从今年年初的4.5%下降到9月份的 1.9%,但关系到民众日常生活的食品价格与去年相比仍上涨了5.5%。同时在参加调查者中有一半的人认为,贫富差别是一个严重的问题。
此次问卷调查对3177名受访者作了面对面的采访,由北京零点调查公司在今年3月到4月间在中国多个城市进行。《华尔街日报》中文网援引皮尤全球调查项目 副主任韦克(Richard Wike)表示,在中国人的生活不断改善的同时,他们对自己的国家存在的问题也越来越不满。而许多担忧都与公平有关。

2012年10月16日 星期二

桃園藻礁遭染黑India to give free generic drugs to hundreds of millions

桃園藻礁遭染黑 罰3廠商停工

〔記 者劉力仁、謝武雄/綜合報導〕桃園濱海特有生態地形「藻礁」屢遭破壞,環保署今年四至九月專案稽查桃園縣大園及觀音工業區列管工廠一百九十五家次,告發四 十三家工廠共八十一家次污染,違規比率高達四十一.五%,其中三家甚至停工處分;環保團體批評桃園縣環保局、環保署、工業局長期縱容放任廠商污染,導致藻 礁生態浩劫。
偷排廢水 43家工廠被告發
環保署督察總隊 北區大隊長蕭清郎表示,以前環保單位針對工廠放流水口末端管制,雖會捉到違規廠商,但也常見廠方聽到風聲「預先」做好防範措施,抽查水樣都是合格,所以今 年改為「深度稽查」,先分析廠商申報排放資料是否有異,最後全面檢驗廢水,包括COD(化學需氧量)、BOD(生化需氧量)、溫度等,成效提升。
生態浩劫 有業者被罰千萬
4成廠商違規 環團批放縱
桃 園縣府環保局表示,環保局抓污染的成效有目共睹,今年四月到九月底,大園鄉稽查二百零一件、查獲污染二十四件、裁處三百二十四萬元,至於觀音鄉稽查三百零 六件、查獲污染三十九件、裁處五百七十八萬元。環保局長陳世偉表示,林長茂一年來只舉發一件污染案件,潘忠政甚至一件都沒有,他不容許這些自稱環保團體的 人,抹煞稽核人員努力。
林長茂說,他曾邀請媒體到桃園海邊拍攝藻礁,記者發現廢水污染當場向官方檢舉,結果環保稽查人員姍姍來遲,到場時證 據都消失;另環保單位找不到暗管,他卻曾跟潘忠政深夜追到不法廠商暗管排放廢水。他回批,公務人員有人力及公權力,追查不法是天職,環團資源缺乏,只能重 點查緝,不然給環團人力及公權力指揮,看誰的成效好。

 《中英對照讀新聞》India to give free generic drugs to hundreds of millions 印度將免費提供學名藥給數億人民

India has put in place a $5.4 billion policy to provide free medicine to its people.
From city hospitals to tiny rural clinics, India’s public doctors will soon be able to prescribe free generic drugs to all comers, vastly expanding access to medicine in a country where public spending on health was just $4.50 per person last year.
Under the plan, doctors will be limited to a generics-only drug list and face punishment for prescribing branded medicines, a major disadvantage for pharmaceutical giants in one of the world’s fastest-growing drug markets.
"Without a doubt, it is a considerable blow to an already beleaguered industry, " said KPMG partner Chris Stirling.
But the initiative would overhaul a system where healthcare is often a luxury, despite 40 percent of the people living below the poverty line, or $1.25 a day or less.
Within five years, up to half of India’s 1.2 billion people are likely to take advantage of the scheme, the government says. Others are likely to continue visiting private hospitals and clinics, where the scheme will not operate. (Reuters)
5年內,印度12億人口中高達半數人民可能受惠於這項計畫,政府指出。其他可能繼續到民營醫院與診所就醫,該項計畫將不在這些醫療院所運作。 (路透)
generic drugs︰學名藥,指原廠的專利期已過,其他藥廠可依原廠公佈的成分、製藥方式等資訊生產的藥物。與學名藥相對的是branded drugs(專利藥、原廠藥)。
put in place︰動詞片語,實施、施行。例句︰The government will put in place special measures to control the spread of the deadly disease.(政府將實施特別措施以控制該致命疾病的擴散。)
overhaul︰動詞,徹底革新。例句︰The old system of education should be overhauled.(舊的教育制度應全面改革。)

2012年10月12日 星期五

魚油(fish oil)能夠提高心臟病患者的存活率女性尤佳


更新時間 2012年 10月 12日, 星期五 - 格林尼治標準時間13:59


多吃魚好處多眾所周知,魚油(fish oil)能夠提高心臟病患者的存活率。
英國雷丁大學(University of Reading)學者的一項最新研究,女性得益於魚油的好處明顯大於男性。
共30名男性和30名女性參加了這項研究。研究人員讓他們喝含飽和脂肪的飲料,或者含飽和脂肪和 omega-3 魚油的飲料。後者的魚油含量相當於200克高油脂魚肉的魚油含量。
omega-3 脂肪酸的最佳來源是含油脂高的魚,包括金槍魚、三文魚、馬鮫魚、沙丁魚、鯡魚和鯷魚;人體本身不產生這種脂肪酸。