2012年4月30日 星期一

‘Healthy’ Foods that Really Aren’t: Nutritionists Weigh In

‘Healthy’ Foods that Really Aren’t: Nutritionists Weigh In

You'll be surprised at the list of health foods that some nutrition experts won't touch.

Reduced-Fat Peanut Butter

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | 21
Martin Jacobs / Getty Images
Martin Jacobs / Getty Images
“In my opinion, the only ingredient in peanut butter should be peanuts,” says Keri Gans, a registered dietitian in New York City and author of The Small Change Diet. “Reduced-fat [peanut butter] adds artificial sweeteners, only to save 0.5 grams of saturated fat per serving and 10 calories. The reduction simply isn’t worth it and the taste becomes too sweet, taking away from the delicious taste of peanuts.”
Cristina Rivera, a registered dietician and president of Nutrition In Motion PC, emphasizes further that not all fats are harmful. “Unsaturated fats such as nuts and peanut butter, seeds, avocado, olive oil and fish oil have numerous health benefits. Foods that contain these fats protect our heart, lower bad cholesterol while raising good cholesterol, and fight inflammation in our bodies,” says Rivera. People should keep that in mind when thinking about opting for low-fat or reduced-fat versions of foods, she says.
(MORE: FDA Recall: Is There Salmonella in Your Skippy?)
In moderation, nuts and nut butters can be healthy snacks that are high in magnesium and vitamin E. Magnesium protects respiratory health and vitamin E boosts immunity and helps protect the body from tissue damage and inflammation triggered by cancer-causing free radicals.
So, when choosing a peanut butter, Rivera recommends skipping the reduced-fat versions in order to reap the full benefits of peanuts’ heart-healthy fats. “Natural or organic is the best option, and if you’re worried about the high calorie content, just be sure to practice portion control — 1 to 2 tablespoons is a serving — and stay physically active.”
MORE: The Supernut: Walnuts Pack a Powerful Dose of Antioxidants

Frozen Yogurt

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | 21
Lesley Magno / Getty Images
Lesley Magno / Getty Images
Dessert is dessert and no sugary treat can ever really be considered “healthy,” but the low-fat frozen yogurt craze has many of us convinced it doesn’t count.
Katherine Booking, a registered dietician and co-founder of AppforHealth.com, cautions consumers that it does. “A lot of frozen yogurt places these days allow you to self-serve and you can easily end up doling out huge portions, then adding high-calorie toppings,” she says. “You could walk out of your favorite fro-yo shop with a 400-plus calorie treat; thinking you’re having a 100 calorie dessert.”
(MORE: Study: The Best and Worst Foods for Healthy Weight)
A common frozen-yogurt myth is that since it’s yogurt, it’s full of healthy probiotics that maintain digestive health and give your immune system a boost. But whether a given brand of frozen yogurt contains enough probiotic bacteria to actually have this beneficial effect depends on the manufacturer. According to Simin Nikbin Meydani, a professor of nutrition at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University:
Although the flash-freezing technique used in the production of frozen yogurt, unlike slow freezing in a freezer, should not kill the live cultures [and healthy bacteria in yogurt], there is no guarantee that this won’t occur.
As a result, the number of bacteria in frozen yogurt is usually lower than that in the yogurt it was made from. However, different yogurts and frozen yogurts are made with different types of live cultures and probiotics, and the levels that remain in frozen yogurt depend on the numbers that were in the yogurt and on the heartiness of the specific bacteria that was used.
To find out if your yogurt has a healthy helping of probiotics, you should read labels and look for the National Yogurt Association’s ”Live and Active Cultures” seals on yogurt containers. But, as far as Booking is concerned, “Overall, probiotics are not worth the calories in most frozen yogurt since you can get probiotics virtually calorie-free in capsules or in fat-free regular yogurt.”
So what’s Booking’s solution? “I’d rather opt for a small portion — about a half-cup serving — of the ‘real deal’: regular ice cream. If I’m going to indulge, I really want to enjoy my indulgence,” she says.
PHOTOS: Pictures of Ice Cream That Will Make You Scream

[名][U]グルテン, 麩(ふ)質 gluten breadグルテンパン(糖尿病患者用の消化のよいパン).


  • 発音記号[síːliæ`k]
[形]《解剖学》腹の, 腹腔(くう)の.

Gluten-Free Foods

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | +
Viktor Budnik / Getty Images
Viktor Budnik / Getty Images
For people suffering from celiac disease — an autoimmune condition — going gluten-free is not a choice, but a health must. The autoimmune condition causes people to have an immune reaction to gluten, a protein found in many grains like wheat, barely and rye, which leads to inflammation in the small intestine and prevents sufferers from absorbing certain nutrients.
Yet gluten-free diets have become trendy, even among those with no allergy to the protein, thanks to celebrities like Victoria Beckhman and Miley Cyrus swearing off gluten and claiming to feel healthier and fitter for it.

But “the bottom line is you only need gluten-free if you have been diagnosed with gluten sensitivity or celiac disease,” says Booking. “It is estimated that only about 1 in 100 Americans have celiac disease and 1 in 7 may have gluten sensitivity.”
Booking notes that many gluten-free foods are now marketed to the general public as health foods — even though some processed gluten-free products are made with significant amounts of added sugar, saturated fat and preservatives. “Since I do not have gluten issues, I do not eat gluten-free foods. The majority of Americans do not have these problems,” she says. “Don’t be fooled into thinking that gluten-free is healthier if you don’t have gluten problems.”
MORE: All Hype? Gluten-Free Diets May Not Help Many

‘High-Fiber’ and ‘Whole-Grain’ Cereal

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | +
Adam Gault / Getty Images
Adam Gault / Getty Images
Nutritionists are constantly encouraging us to eat more high-fiber foods and whole grains, which help lower the risk of heart disease and even some cancers. But according to Oz Garcia, celebrity nutritionist for stars like Hilary Swank, if you’re getting your fiber and grains from breakfast cereal, that’s probably not the healthiest way to go. Most commercial “healthy” cereals are packed with additives, he says. ”Unless you are purchasing cereal from a health food store, many brands that are marketed as healthy are usually full of sugar and processed ingredients,” says Garcia.
So when you’re choosing cereal, bread or any other whole-grain product, Garcia recommends reading labels with a critical eye. “Many whole wheat breads are not entirely whole grain. They are often processed with artificial ingredients and can even be caramelized for coloring,” he says.


[動](他)(自)〈砂糖を〉カラメルにする, 〈砂糖が〉カラメルになる;…にカラメルをかける

Processed Soy Foods

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | +
Russell Sadur / Getty Images
Russell Sadur / Getty Images
Whole, organic soy has a host of health advantages, but many nutritionists won’t touch processed products promoting “soy” ingredients — like Luna Bars and soy protein powders. That’s because processed soy, also known as soy protein isolate, has none of the carbs, fat or fiber that makes soy so healthy.
“I won’t eat soy protein isolate, or for that matter any soy unless it’s in its organic whole food form,” says Ashley Koff, a registered dietician and co-author of Mom Energy: A Simple Plan To Live Fully Charged. ”Isolating the protein at minimum loses the benefits of the rest of the soy, like its fiber and omega-3s, and at worst creates a product that may be implicated in hormone imbalance.”

‘Light’ Yogurt

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | +
Michael Rosenfeld / Getty Images
Michael Rosenfeld / Getty Images
This one is easy to get wrong, says Kim Snyder, nutritionist for celebrities like Drew Barrymore and Channing Tatum and author of The Beauty Detox Solution. After all, yogurt is always made of wholesome dairy and fresh fruit right? Wrong. “Yogurt can contain tons of sugar. Read the label and you’ll see yogurt often contains high-fructose corn syrup, artificial flavorings and artificial colors. One small container of fat-free yogurt can have upwards of 28 to 31 grams of sugar,” says Snyder.
New York City dietician Gans also avoids “light” yogurts. So when she still wants the dairy, but not the added sugar, “I much prefer to go with a low-fat Greek yogurt for a little extra calories and whole lot more protein. In some comparisons, an additional 8 g [of protein] per serving,” she says. “The creamy taste of Greek is more satisfying to me than the artificially sweetened.”
Low-fat dairy can be a healthy addition to your diet, by increasing your calcium and protein intake, which can help you feel fuller longer. But Snyder argues that there are lots of other sources of dietary calcium besides yogurt and milk that can be even better for you.

Nothing! Everything’s Fine in Moderation

By Alexandra Sifferlin | @acsifferlin | April 19, 2012 | +
Caspar Benson / Getty Images
Caspar Benson / Getty Images
Health gurus may gasp in horror, but Alan Aragon, a southern California-based nutritionist who works with professional athletes, welcomes pretty much anything into his diet. “There are no foods I can think of that I would completely avoid,” he says. “I like to say, ‘avoid food avoidance.’ This helps reinforce the principle that everything — and I mean everything — is fine in moderation.”
French fries? Cheese curds? Taco Bell’s Dorito-shell tacos? It’s all acceptable. “Junk food can be eaten as often as you want — even daily — as long as it only comprises a minor proportion of your overall calories for the day. This allows people to not feel boxed into a diet that has no leeway for letting your hair down,” says Aragon. “I’ve always said that life is far too long to spend on a strict diet.”

2012年4月29日 星期日

東芝埃及冰箱廠大火 大甲溪岸 遭偷倒6千公噸廢棄物



東芝埃及冰箱廠大火 500人受傷



大甲溪岸 遭偷倒6千公噸廢棄物

台中市豐原分局警方,昨天會同環 保警察第二中隊人員,在台中市神岡區的大甲溪河岸區,查獲一起竊佔國有土地,供人傾倒廢棄物的案件,逮捕劉姓(52歲)、袁姓(55歲)、陳姓(35歲) 等3名主嫌及其他13名現場工作人員及大貨車司機。嫌犯等人涉嫌自本月初起,以每台車新台幣5000元代價,提供不特定砂石車傾倒廢棄物。包括建築廢棄 物、廢土等,至於是否有毒,要等送驗結果出爐才知道。


2012年4月28日 星期六



權威醫學雜誌《柳葉刀》上月刊發了一期中國專刊,對中國醫改三年的進展和初步成效進行了分析和評價。 2011年10-12月,摩根銀行、世界衛生組織、美國國際戰略研究中心也相繼發布中國醫改進展評估報告。這表明中國醫改確實產生了全球影響。
本文先要探討的是為什麼牆外那麼香?正如筆者在FT中文網發表的上一篇文章(《中國醫改要避免“輪迴”》)中所說,中國醫改最受國際肯定的是其確定的改革方向。 《柳葉刀》的這期專刊中,有兩篇文章是對中國醫改的總體評價,文章通過對改革重點任務進行評估,也指出中國醫改正沿著正確的方向前進。這和其他幾個機構的評估結論相吻合。確定改革方向對醫改的重要意義,筆者已經在上述文章中闡述。本文要談談,為什麼中國的醫改方向會得到廣泛的國際肯定?
《柳葉刀》的文章說政府的責任得到強化,我想“重拾”更準確。同時,“保基本”、“強基層”被作為改革的重點,資源向長期被忽視的農村、基層傾斜,農村、貧困地區以及弱勢群體得到優先保障,基層醫療衛生服務體係得到重構和改善。 《柳葉刀》文章發現,三年醫改以來,醫療衛生服務的可及性和公平性發生了積極的變化,為實現到2020年人人享有基本醫療衛生服務的改革目標奠定了基礎。
同時,中國在健康和醫療衛生方面的國際形象,也發生過顛覆性的變化。 1978年的阿拉木圖會議上,中國作為探索人人享有衛生保健的典範,被推為榜樣;而30年後,在2008年的《世界衛生報告》中,中國卻已然是一個突出的負面典型,一個“壞孩子”。從政府提供服務模式到明顯的利益驅動提供服務模式,中國的醫療衛生體制經歷了兩個截然相反的發展階段。國際上期待,從2009年啟幕的中國醫改,可以找到一條更合理的政府和市場相結合的中國醫改道路。我們也可以做同樣的期待。

2012年4月27日 星期五

Aging society keeps Germans working

Retirees on a bench


Aging society keeps Germans working

A graying society brings opportunities as well as problems, says German Chancellor Angela Merkel Older workers could be just as productive as younger ones - if companies create the right conditions.
Chancellor Angela Merkel invited leaders from cities and towns across Germany as well as researchers, doctors and elderly care experts to a demography conference at the Chancellery to discuss how the would deal with its graying society.
"This issue demands our greatest attention," Merkel told her guests on Tuesday.
Germans' average life expectancy annually rises by three months, according to the German Interior Ministry. Currently there are about 50 million of working age, between 20 and 64, in Germany. By 2030 that number will likely fall by 6.3 million.

Crowded seat during the demographics conference The Chancellery was packed to hear Merkel discuss demographics
"The question we're dealing with is where qualified workers will come from and how we keep the social system stable without overwhelming contributors," Merkel said, adding that Germany's graying society needed to be seen an opportunity. "The really goods news is that we are living longer and staying healthy longer and can stay active as we age."
Merkel repeated her support for raising the retirement age to 67 by saying that demographic changes in Germany called for it and added that having more experienced employees would increase companies' productivity.
"When all the older people are missing in a company then the company is also missing experience," the chancellor said, pointing out that an automaker's project in Bavaria showed that special slower production lines staffed by older employees proved as efficiency as those with younger workers.

Lots to do, lots of ideas
Merkel's demographic strategy addresses six main points: support for families, putting in place the right conditions for a longer working life, and finding ways for older people to choose the way they work. Cooperation among federal, state and municipal institutions, securing wealth and growth and limiting state debt rounded out her plan, which is expected to be approved by her ministers on Wednesday.
Participants at the chancellor's conference met to discuss ways of addressing these points and suggested local transportation companies also delivering goods, getting the elderly to organize their own care and merging schools in areas with low demand and weak infrastructure.
"There is a lot to do but there are also a lot of ideas," Merkel said. "Our demographic strategy shows that we have to be able to learn from each other - even as we go into the autumns of our lives."
Author: Heiner Kiesel / sms
Editor: Simon Bone

2012年4月26日 星期四

Burger King To Go Cage-Free

Burger King To Go Cage-Free

The fast food giant's decision could be a game changer for the meat industry.

A Burger King sign in Glendale, Calif.Photograph by Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images.
Burger King announced on Wednesday that it will super-size its effort to produce humane animal products by switching to cage-free pigs and chicken products in the next five years.
The Associated Press reports that the fast food chain’s decision will raise the bar for other corporations, and represents "a game-change in the egg and pork supply business." Currently, pigs and chickens are kept in cramped quarters, even during pregnancy, which can harm their health.
Animal rights advocates applauded the Burger King announcement. "This is an issue that just four to five months ago was not on the food industry’s radar," said the Humane Society's Paul Shapiro. "Now it’s firmly cemented into the mainstream in a way that I think few people would have imagined."
Other food corporations have also started to show signs recently of moving toward humane practices. McDonalds and Wendy’s announced their intentions to eliminate gestation crates earlier this year, but do not have a time table. Smithfield Farms and Hormel also committed to removing the crates by 2017. And in the state of California, the 2008 bill Proposition 2 called for an end to crowded crates and cages by 2015.

Mad Cow Case Confirmed in California First Arrest in Connection With BP Spill



Feds Make First Arrest in Connection With BP Spill

Feds Make First Arrest in Connection With BP Spill

A former engineer is charged with destroying evidence, suggesting the company was intentionally underreporting the scope of the disaster.



Mad Cow Case Confirmed in California

But health officials say it poses little threat to the public.

South Korea removed the U.S. beef from some store shelves
Photograph by Koichi Kamoshida/Getty Images.
Authorities confirmed the fourth ever case of mad cow disease in the United States on Tuesday after an infected cow died on a farm in California.
CNN reports that health officials say the risk to the public is very low, and that residents do not need to take preventative measures. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, commonly called mad cow, was responsible for 150 deaths in the 1980s and '90s in Britain.
While the announcement prompted a steep drop in live cattle futures on Tuesday, Reuters reports that the market was back into the black one day later. But South Korea, which imports 125,000 tons of U.S. beef, took the product off some store shelves.
The first case of BSE in the United States was discovered in 2003, causing some importers like Japan to pull out of the market. The countries recently reopened to the beef, and traders said the latest case would not affect the market.

2012年4月24日 星期二

A Surprising Risk for Toddlers on Playground Slides

A Surprising Risk for Toddlers on Playground Slides

Orthopedic specialists say they treat a number of toddlers and young children each year with broken legs as a result of riding down slides on a parent's lap.

[名][U]整形外科(学):主に脊椎(せきつい)や関節の異常を治療する;形成外科(plastic surgery)との違いに注意.-dic[形]整形外科の.-di・cal・ly[副]-dist[...

2012年4月23日 星期一

玄海原発事故、原因はpump軸に加工miss 日本政府借東電超過上召來賠償

玄海原発事故、原因はポンプ軸に加工ミス 九電が報告



2012年4月22日 星期日




















恣訂瘦肉精容許量 消基會砲轟衛署
消基會質疑衛生署訂出容許攝取量是準備開放含瘦肉精的美牛,瘦肉精仍是禁藥,討論瘦肉精容許攝取量有違程序正義,消基會要求完成風險評估前,暫緩研議。 ▲消基會等團體不滿衛生署食藥局於11日召開會議,訂出萊克多巴胺每日每公斤容許量(ADI)為1微克/公斤,22日召開 ...
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趁油電雙漲/衛署偷襲 擅訂瘦肉精容許量1微克



This site is being updated. For a first update please go to  Home or About Us

info Is there a meaningful difference between natural and synthetic additives?

info Is allergy a problem with additives?

info How is the ADI for an additive determined?

info Is there intolerance to food additives?

 Interactive site map.

Acceptable Daily Intake

The Acceptable Daily Intake, or ADI, is defined as an estimate of the amount of a food additive, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk. It is measured in milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

The concept of the ADI was initially developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, or JEFCA. It was later endorsed by the Scientific Committee on Food, and its successor, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

How is the ADI for an additive determined?© Christian Hansen A/S – All rights reserved

It is usually derived from long-term animal feeding studies. First, the No Adverse Effect Level is determined, which is the highest dose of an additive that can be fed to the most sensitive animal species on a daily basis with no toxic effects. A large safety factor is then added – usually by dividing the level in animals by 100 – to arrive at a safe level for humans. For example, if the no effect level in animals is found to be 100mg/kg, then the human ADI would be set at 1mg/kg.

The safety factor is built in partly to account for the differences between animals and humans, and also to allow for the variability between different people, such as age, health and how well nourished they are.

The ADI is not a level of toxicity – it is a level that has been found to be safe. Consuming more than this on occasions is unlikely to cause health problems, as long as the average daily intake is below the ADI. It should always be compared with average consumption levels over long periods, not with intakes on a day-to-day basis.

ADI has been proved to be the best practical tool available for legislators. It has contributed to a uniform approach around the world to express the safety of a substance in relation to human consumption levels of additives.

消基會及醫界昨日揭露,衛生署訂出萊克多巴胺每人每日每公斤體重攝取容許量(ADI)一微克,以國人食肉的習慣推算,肉品殘留允許值(MRL)應介於六到六十ppb,如果訂出十ppb上限值,以六十公斤體重的人為例,吃六公斤的肉就會達到容許值;民間團體強烈呼籲在未完成 ...
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Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and the Safety of Food from Animals

Residues of veterinary medicinal products, as defined by the European Union, are "pharmacologically active substances (whether active principles, excipients or degradation products) and their metabolites which remain in foodstuffs obtained from animals to which the veterinary medicinal product in question has been administered".
An MRL is the maximum concentration of residue following administration of a veterinary medicine which is legally permitted or acceptable in food under the laws of the EU.
The responsibility for keeping residues under the MRL lies with veterinary surgeons and farmers, using licensed animal medicines.
Use of animal medicines is strictly controlled by European law, and requires observance of the withdrawal period. This is the time which passes between the last dose given to the animal and the time when the level of residues in the tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, skin/fat) or products (milk, eggs, honey) is lower than or equal to the MRL. Until the withdrawal period has elapsed, the animal or its products must not be used for human consumption.
The withdrawal period is set out in the data sheet for the medicine and in the instructions for use which are part of the product packaging. Farmers are required by law to record all uses of animal medicines; it is therefore straightforward to ensure that withdrawal periods are observed.
Withdrawal periods exist so that MRLs are not exceeded and to ensure consumer safety. Accordingly, safety is of paramount importance when both MRLs and withdrawal periods are established and the legislators always err on the side of caution. As a result, although residues above the MRL should not occur, even if they do, they generally present no risk to the consumer because of the very large safety margins used in setting the MRL.
For example, the calculation of the MRL value is based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI; see below) for the drug in question. The calculation of the ADI includes an extremely large safety factor. In addition, the MRL calculation assumes an average intake per person of 500g of meat (over a pound!), 1.5 litres of milk (over 2.5 pints!), 2 eggs and 20g (nearly an ounce) of honey. Legislators might be well advised to consider the health implications for obesity and cholesterol levels!

Residues Surveillance

In the UK, farmers and veterinarians have an excellent track record of observing the regulations - and measures are in place to ensure things stay that way. As part of that effort, the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) operates two complementary surveillance programmes for residues of veterinary drugs in food of animal origin to ensure that residues above the MRL do not occur and that prohibited or illegal drugs are not being used:

Statutory Programme

A statutory programme fulfils the UK's obligations under Directive 96/23/EC. This Directive extended the previous statutory residues testing programme to poultry and aquaculture (salmon and trout), eggs, wild and farmed game and honey, and changed the previous regime for red meat by requiring a higher number of samples to be taken on farm with a consequent reduction in sampling at slaughterhouses.
Each year samples are collected from randomly selected farms and abattoirs by the State Veterinary Service (SVS) and the Meat Hygiene Service and analyses performed. In 2003 there were some 30 975 samples collected and 35 399 analyses performed. Analysis is carried out by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist and results are published by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate quarterly, and annually by the Veterinary Residues Committee (VRC). The results are presented for independent scrutiny at meetings of the VRC during the year. All the results are also seen by the Food Standards Agency. They can give a scientific opinion on the significance for human health.
In 2003 the VRC said that overall, the results of the National Surveillance Scheme indicate that the UK authorised uses of veterinary medicinal products did not result in residues of human health concern.
Follow-up action is taken by the State Veterinary Service on every sample which on confirmatory analysis shows the presence of unauthorised substances or concentrations of authorised substances above the MRL. A thorough on-farm investigation is carried out, with farmers advised how to avoid residues of veterinary medicines entering the food chain. If inspection of farm records and stock and the taking of further samples reveals clear evidence of abuse, the farmer will be prosecuted.

Non-Statutory Programme

A non-statutory programme supplements and complements the National Surveillance Scheme, extending residue analysis to imported and processed foods. It gives valuable information on foods that do not fall within the NSS.
Samples are taken from popular presentations of meat and animal products, collected from shops and at the border inspection posts. Samples are subjected to a range of analyses by the Central Science Laboratory in York. In 2003, there were 5468 analyses, targeted in particular foods where intelligence had suggested the possible presence of banned substances being used as veterinary medicines.
Retailers are informed by VMD of any "positive" samples purchased from their stores, and consumer organisations, local authorities, relevant trade associations and producers are contacted where appropriate to make them aware of the results.
If the products are imported, the SVS will contact the Chief Veterinary Officer of the country concerned. There are powers under the Food Safety Act to remove from the food chain food products containing residues at concentrations which represent a danger to human health.
In addition to these schemes, milk is tested for antibiotic residues by the dairy companies and heavy penalties face dairy farmers whose milk fails to meet the necessary requirements. Food retailers and processors also frequently carry out their own checks.

How MRLs are set

Maximum Residue Limits are set by the European Commission after adoption by the Standing Committee, following an opinion of the Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP). Manufacturers apply for an MRL, supplying the CVMP with two dossiers of information - on safety and residues - from which they can make their assessment.
The Safety Dossier contains all the pharmacology and toxicology studies carried out with the medicine in laboratory animals.
These studies examine what happens to the substance in the body and assess how much can be given safely, without inducing any unwanted adverse effects.
The safety dossier also includes the calculation of the ADI referred to earlier. This is based on results in laboratory animals and particularly on the so-called No-Observed-Effect Level (NOEL), the dose with no observable effect in the most sensitive test used.
The World Health Organisation recommends that once the NOEL has been determined, a safety factor of between 100 and 1000 (usually depending on the type of effect) is applied to derive the ADI.
The Residues Dossier contains all the data concerning the formation, nature, behaviour and disappearance of residues after a medicine has been given to a farm animal.
Together, the results from the residues file on the quantities and behaviour of residues in farm animals, with the ADI derived from the safety file and the theoretical food intakes mentioned earlier (500 g meat, 1.5 litres of milk etc) are used to calculate the MRL(s), on the assumption that consumers get the maximum level every day of their lives.
Determining MRLs is a requirement of European legislation under a Council Regulation (2377/90). Under this legislation, substances must be entered into one of four annexes to the Regulation:

Annex I: Final MRLs

The data in the dossier are considered adequate to establish a final MRL.

Annex II: MRLs not necessary

The data in the dossier demonstrate that there is no risk to the consumer and MRLs are not needed.

Annex III: Provisional MRLs

This is for medicines where MRLs can be established but some clarification of further studies are required before final MRLs can be set.

Annex IV

Residues of the the medicine pose an unacceptable risk to the consumer or there is insufficient information to allow a full assessment. The products in Annex IV are prohibited for use in food producing animals in the European Union.
No new medicine can be licensed or sold for use in food producing animals until its active ingredients have been entered into Annexes I, II or III of the Regulation.


Considerable research effort is put into developing the safety and residues dossiers for veterinary medicines so that the ADI values can be calculated, MRLs set and withdrawal periods established. This process, together with residues monitoring to ensure that residues above the MRL do not occur and that prohibited drugs are not used serves to ensure safety for the consumer, especially as large safety factors are built in at several stages of the process.
Violations of MRLs or the uses of prohibited substances, detected under the surveillance programme, are investigated and, where appropriate, are prosecuted. Legal sanctions can be taken against individuals who ignore instructions on the proper use of products.

Further reading:

The Veterinary Residues Committee Annual Report on Surveillance for Veterinary Residues in 2003 (http://www.vet-residues-committee.gov.uk)
Animal Medicines Record Book (available from NOAH)
NOAH press release "NOAH Responds to Organic Lobby Report" (5 June 2001)

2012年4月18日 星期三




其實 這才是真正的TQM
(我們可以比較NHK在此領域的種種節目 他們才算 PREPARED 不過仍有許多問題)

aging 不只是"可靠性"問題 它是 a fact of life 它又牽涉到"生活品質" 所以是很重要的話題 我建議朋友可開設些blog之類的 來嘉惠讀者

不過 或許我們該多談論它
談它的方式很多 譬如說

作者思果已逝 梁永安先生2011年翻譯牛津老年之書老年之書:思我生命之旅 The Oxford Book of Aging: Reflections ...

讀思果「說健忘談老年 外一章 」(http://www.cdn.com.tw/daily/2004/04/21/text/930421e1.htm

2912年余光中出版翻譯Keats的詩集   老當益狀

一篇 Simon U 文章 (2004年) 更新
榮總高齡醫學中心寫給怕老族的信 :





     簡單地說,一個老人健不健 康 ,不是看他得什麼病、或是醫院的檢驗數值最關鍵的指標是身心功能狀況,人老了還活得健 康、有活力,生活有品質,,身分證上的出生年月日只是一個數字而已。


     如果你不想年老之後,天天看病吃藥, 第一要務就是,養成固定的運動習慣,及早鞏固「骨本」與「肉本」,因為走路變慢、走路不穩,多半和肌肉退化有關,練習能鍛鍊肌力的低阻抗運動,例如舉輕一點的啞鈴,適度的伸展,來保持良好的身體功能,避免骨鬆症與肌少症(sarcopenia),也就是避免骨質流失與骨骼肌的萎縮與退化。


     未來的五到十年間,整個醫療照護、長照、銀髮產業,都會因老年化有很大的改變。你會發現,往後的醫師並不只是看病與開藥,而是想盡辦法來維持你的身心功能、改善你的生活品質,台灣將發展出一個無縫(seamless)接軌的照護體系,不同健康狀況的人,都有適切的健康 照護服務。


2012年4月17日 星期二

奧運肥了麥當勞 中國運動員“戒肉”

 新聞報導奧運倒計時 中國運動員“戒肉”
此次倫敦奧運會由倫敦奧運委員會主辦,7月27日至8月12日之間舉行,目前主辦方已售出600萬張門票。根據德新社報導,5月中旬奧運聖火將在希臘點燃,5月18日聖火抵達英國後將展開為期70天的火炬傳遞。 7月10日,由8000火炬手負責傳遞的聖火將經過溫莎城堡,英國女王伊麗莎白二世將在場觀看。此次出任英國奧運代表隊大使的威廉王子夫婦和哈利王子預定在7月26日於白金漢宮迎接奧運火炬。
中國屢次出現食品安全醜聞,雖然瘦肉精在中國遭到禁止,但豬肉添加瘦肉精的事件仍層出不窮。被稱為克倫特羅(Clenbuterol)的瘦肉精能促進動物的肌肉生長,並減少脂肪含量;運動員使用克倫特羅可以增強運動表現。世界反興奮劑組織(World Anti-Doping Agency)將其列為禁藥。過去,北京奧運會的柔道冠軍佟文和奧運冠軍舉重選手廖輝都曾因瘦肉精被禁賽。
綜合報導: 張筠青
責編: 葉宣



更新時間 2012年 4月 16日, 星期一 - 格林尼治標準時間17:56
皇家醫學院的教授尼爾·道格拉斯爵士(Professor Sir Neil Douglas)表示:「這是英國的一大問題。這問題比艾滋病問題要嚴重得多,更遠比豬流感嚴重。」
麥當勞 可口可樂

Exercise 運動

Fun run

People, it seems, have evolved to be addicted to exercise(8)
Measuring your everyday activities can help improve your quality of life, according to aficionados of “self-tracking”(12)
Just why exercise is so good for people is, at last, being understood (52)
How to calculate your optimal marathon pace (7)

運動是改變體質的根本辦法                                                               作者:台大醫生 


因 為運動可使身體內在環境的細胞,藉促進血液循環,以帶動氧氣和營養,反過來,又使細胞增加活力。 

因 此,人體的免疫力,便能增加。 

現在,體力增加了,走20 公里路,已是 家常便飯,甚至還有過一天走40 公里的紀錄。 
幾年前,還在經過兩年的準備之後,登上玉山,來作為對我的體能的考驗,結果,我很歡喜我的成績,我通 過了。 
兩年前,我改變了工作環境,每天早上先去爬山,在山上吸它兩個鐘頭的芬多精,回家洗個澡才去上班,現 在看到我的人,都說我比以前健康,我則會加上一句:「天天爬山,明年會更好。」 
你 的細胞看起來很累,趕快去爬山補充氧氣,癌細胞會回歸正常。 

在 實驗室養癌細胞,如果加氧,癌細胞就養不好,如果加二氧化碳,癌細胞就養得很好。 
表 示,我們自己把體內環境弄到缺氧,細胞才無可奈何變成癌細胞來適應環境,如果把環境裡的缺氧因素刪掉,補充氧份,其 實癌細胞是會回歸正常的。 

現在,每當我透過顯微鏡看到病人 或友人的細胞顯出缺氧的狀況時,我都會提醒對方: 


笑、不生氣、正面看、放鬆  四招多活三十年 

除 了生理因素之外,要克服病魔,還必須從心理層面下手,像笑、不生氣及以正面態度看待一切事情,還有學習放鬆,即是我 這麼多年來能夠降服疾病的一大原因。 


因 為我知道,笑的時候,尤其是大笑的時候,身體內的細胞是放鬆的。 

生氣是別人做錯事  我懲罰自己 

別 人在挑釁,馬上逃到看不到挑釁的地方,再慢慢調整自己的情緒;然後,我漸漸不需要逃離現場也能壓住脾氣,可是還需要 在心裡說:「你好可憐。」 

恭 喜病人得癌症 

甚 至有癌症患者來找我時,我會說「恭喜你得癌症」,對方一聽,自然會覺得莫名其妙,我解釋,「假如你不得癌症,怎麼會 改變飲食習慣? 
怎麼會開始運動?又怎麼會學笑呢?再說,從今天開始,你的生活會一天天地變好、一天天地有品質,這樣 一來,怎麼會不值得恭喜?」 


如果凡事從正面思考,事事會變 得非常美好;反之,凡事都從負面思考,事事都變得相當糟糕。 
就 像我先生,為了我好,毅然決然地把家裡的電話線拔掉,以免我下了班後,還要接聽一大堆電話,雖然這似乎對我有些不方 便,但是,從另一個角度來看,能夠安安靜靜地利用下班時間做瑜伽、運動、打太極拳,對身體不是反而有很大的幫助嗎? 


心真的放鬆,身體的細胞才能放 鬆。 
而 心要放鬆,必須放下很多現世間的價值觀,包括名、利、情……等。 

我的方法是從清抽屜開始,久已不用的東西,馬上送走、放開,衣服物品也是,甚至延伸至人際關係,於是 人變得活得很簡單、很樸素,人就輕鬆了。 

當 年,醫生宣判我只有六個月的生命,如今,我認為自己「多賺了30多 年」。為何如此? 


這 些年來,我不但看了不少癌症病人,更與其中一部份病人變成朋友,共同奮鬥,分享彼此的經驗,互相鼓勵,努力活下去。 

「改得越 多,改得越徹底,好得越快。」已經成了我們的原則。 

運 動的好處是使身體的循環順暢,促使身體代謝加快,把養分及氧氣帶到該去的地方,對生病的細胞,尤為重要。 

要知道,自己身體裡的細胞,到底是聽自己的,還是聽別 人的呢?