2016年10月30日 星期日

2016年10月27日 星期四

World wildlife 'falls by 58% in 40 years'

World wildlife 'falls by 58% in 40 years' http://bbc.in/2f8RnUu
Global wildlife populations have fallen by 58% since 1970, according to a biodiversity report.
BBC.CO.UK

2016年10月25日 星期二

No Combustion-Engine Cars Sold in Germany After 2030,

德國人的遠見及執行力一直使德國各方面都能執世界牛耳。
蔡英文總統2025年20%再生能源的目標卻倍受質疑!
20%再生能源在德國現在已經超越,台灣還有一些人毒舌不斷,忘了世上美事絕無從天而降的事,知其不可而為才是令人激賞的精神。
讓我們一起以行動支持新政府的非核家園理想。
讓台灣乾淨又安全。
內燃機的潮流終於要終結了嗎?在德國,答案似乎是對的。雖然這項技術於多年前由德國發明,但是上週德國聯邦參議院投票決定,將於 2030…
TOMORROWSCI.COM

Germany's Bundesrat Resolves End Of Internal Combustion Engine

www.forbes.com/.../germanys-bundesrat-resolves-end-of-internal-combustion-engine/
Oct 8, 2016 - Diesel and gasoline-powered vehicles officially are an endangered species in ... a resolution to ban the internal combustion engine starting in 2030. ... are the reason that half of the carson Europe's roads are diesel-driven.

No Combustion-Engine Cars Sold in Germany After 2030, Parliament ...

www.ecowatch.com/germany-bans-combustion-engine-cars-2037788435.html
Oct 10, 2016 - On Jan. 29, 1886, Carl Benz—who had invented the first stationary gasoline engine seven years earlier—patented a "vehicle powered by a gas ...

Internal Combustion Banned - Germany Bans Gasoline and Diesel by ...

www.roadandtrack.com/...cars/...cars/.../german-government-votes-to-ban-internal-co...
Oct 8, 2016 - The German Bundesrat has voted to ban new gasoline- or diesel-powered vehicles from EU roads starting in 2030. ... fuel tax setup led to diesels making up more than half of annual new carsales since roughly 2010. But the ...

2016年10月21日 星期五

美國汽車傷亡日重,多因人為錯誤--加強安全之道 (英文、NPR)


Human Errors Drive Growing Death Toll In Auto Crashes
http://www.npr.org/2016/10/20/498406570/tech-human-errors-drive-growing-death-toll-in-auto-crashes
Listen·3:343:34

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Transcript
October 20, 20164:28 AM ET
Heard on Morning Edition


DAVID SCHAPER



Officials investigate a fatal head-on collision on Route 1 at the town line of Wiscasset and Woolwich in Maine in May.Derek Davis/Press Herald via Getty Images

Our cars and trucks are being made with more safety features. New technologies such as lane departure warnings, blind spot detection, vehicle stabilizers and anti-lock brakes can, and do, save lives.

Yet more people are dying on the nation's roadways — nearly 18,000 in the first six months of this year. That's a huge jump of 10.4 percent over the same time period in 2015, and it's part of a disturbing trend, according to federal officials, because traffic fatalities rose significantly last year, too.

"After decades of progress reducing fatalities, all of a sudden, we're suddenly losing ground," says Mark Rosekind, administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

So the government is teaming up with safety advocates, highway designers and others in a new effort to try to reduce the number of traffic fatalities — to zero — within 30 years.

"We have an immediate crisis on our hands and we also have a long-term challenge," Rosekind says.


THE TWO-WAY
Putting Traffic Deaths In The Past Tense

The tragic toll is seen every day by accident investigators.

"It's an unfortunate thing, but our crash investigators are kept very busy," says Detective Chris Covelli of the Lake County, Ill., Sheriff's Department in Chicago's northern suburbs.

Covelli recalls one crash. On May 5, Stephanie Kostenko was walking along U.S. Highway 12 in Chicago's far northwest suburbs. A little after 2:30 a.m. the 22-year-old was hit from behind by a Ford Mustang and killed.

"This 23-year-old man [who was driving the Mustang] indicated he was traveling between 65 and 70 miles an hour," says Covelli, a speed that is above the posted speed limit of 55 mph.

Additionally, investigators learned the man had been drinking and smoking weed.

"So we had three separate things here playing a factor," Covelli says. "We had excessive speed, we had cannabis in this 23-year-old's system, and we had alcohol in this 23-year-old's system."

Covelli says all three factors in the crash were completely preventable.

"One of the hardest things we ever have to do is go knock on a door at 2 or 3, 4 o'clock in the morning and tell somebody that their loved one has died as a result of a tragic crash, especially when it's a crash that could have been prevented by not drinking, prevented by not using a cellphone, prevented by not consuming alcohol," he says.

Yet traffic fatalities from preventable causes are on the rise all across the U.S.

Last year, 35,092 people died on the nation's roadways, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, an increase of 7.2 percent compared to 2014.

New Government Figures Reveal Uptick In Driving Fatalities
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The trend continues this year, with NHTSA estimating 17,775 traffic fatalities in the first six month of 2016. That's up 10.4 percent compared to the 16,100 killed on roads in the same period last year.

Some of the rise in traffic accidents and in fatalities is due to the fact that more people are driving more often. Fueled in part by a stronger economy and low gasoline prices, Americans drove a record of more than 3.1 trillion miles last year, up more than 3 percent compared to 2014, according to the Federal Highway Administration. And the number of vehicle miles traveled is up 3.3 percent so far this year, on pace to set another record.

But Rosekind points out that more vehicles on the road, as well as increased numbers of pedestrians and bicyclists, account for only about half of the sharp increase in traffic fatalities, the vast majority of which he says could be prevented by wearing seat belts, slowing down and putting down the phone.

"Ninety-four percent of crashes can be tied back to a human choice or error. Ninety-four percent!" Rosekind says. "Those are the decisions like drinking and driving, speeding or distraction behind the wheel."

Rosekind notes that this is happening at a time when air bags, traction control, stability control and other new technologies are making our vehicles much safer.



If we had 14 plane crashes a week, our hair would be on fire and no one would set foot on an airplane. Why do we accept the fatalities that occur on our roadways?

Deborah Hersman, president and CEO of the National Safety Council

"We are in the midst of a public health crisis and it isn't Zika," says Deborah Hersman, former chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board and now president and CEO of the National Safety Council.

She breaks those numbers down, saying it's about 100 people killed on our roads a day, "the equivalent of two regional jets crashing, every day. That would be 14 plane crashes a week," she says.

"If we had 14 plane crashes a week, our hair would be on fire and no one would set foot on an airplane," Hersman adds. "Why do we accept the fatalities that occur on our roadways?"

So the nonprofit National Safety Council and the federal government are working with car and truck manufacturers on new vehicle safety features,such as automatic emergency braking, which will become standard on most vehicles by 2022, and with highway and traffic engineers on safer road designs.

Though these advances will help, Rosekind says the biggest challenge is changing human behavior. New technologies will be able to override some mistakes people make, but not all.

"The technology enthusiasm is just because that's a new tool," he says. "It's not an answer, either, it's just a new tool for us to use."

As for self-driving cars, which may eventually help reduce or eliminate human error and mistakes people make behind the wheel, Rosekind notes that a high tech solution is still a long ways off.

"As much as people talk about fully autonomous drivers, we gotta do stuff now," he says, to better protect the lives of tens of thousands of people dying on our roadways each year.

2016年10月16日 星期日

張文亮:為什麼病人要多吃「鹼性食物」?—認識「腫瘤與腹瀉」

為什麼病人要多吃「鹼性食物」?—認識「腫瘤與腹瀉」
照顧腫瘤病人的原則是
「勿縱勿枉,仰望上帝」。
勿縱,是請不要放任自己的感情,太快絕望。
不要完全聽從病人的情緒,嬌縱病人。
勿枉,是不要依靠自己的知識,
作太主觀的認定;
不要任憑市面上的道聽塗說,
否定醫護人員的指示。
我們知道在一切知識之外,仍有未知,
我們相信一切疼痛,有其意義,
走到臨終之門,讓我們敲那恩典之門,
耶穌說:「叩門,就給你們開門。」
是的,仰望上帝的保守。
腹瀉(diarrhea)對一般人是偶爾的不適,對腫瘤患者,是非常嚴重的問題。腹瀉不只排出病人所需要的水分、營養分,也將化療、標靶用藥排出,使病人無法得醫治。因此腫瘤病人每日所吃所喝的量,與排出的量都要做記錄,以作加減。當輸出大於輸入,那是腹瀉,更是健康的流失。
腹瀉的原因50%來是腫瘤細胞分泌物的影響,50%來自化療用藥的影響,雙方剛好一樣的權重。這使腹瀉的診斷,幾乎是門藝術。醫護人員還在思索真正的原因之前,請病人與家屬不要驟下斷言,否則你的照顧就有點「狀況外」了。
腹瀉來自小腸的表層細胞受損,以致無法分泌消化酶來吸收營養,小腸的表面細胞分生快速,腫瘤衍生物喜歡到人體細胞快速增生的部位,因此會影響小腸。而化療用藥是抑制身體細胞長最快的部位,以抑制腫瘤細胞增生,這也抑制小腸細胞增生,產生腹瀉。用藥與腫瘤的攻守,皆影響小腸,造成腹瀉。
身體所需營養分「鉀」的吸收,主要在小腸。腹瀉若一直將鉀排出,以致造成人體的「低鉀症」(hypokalemia)。鉀影響心臟的跳動,低鉀使心臟跳動無力,血壓降低。鉀影響肌肉的收縮,缺鉀使肌肉無力,病人難以走動。鉀維持血液的酸鹼平衡,缺鉀使血液偏酸,身體血液中二氧化碳滯留,大腦將陷入昏迷,或產生譫妄,是非常嚴重的問題。
為了減少鉀的流失,與減少血液的偏酸,醫護人員鼓勵病人吃「鹼性食物」。「鹼性食物」不是嚐來酸或鹼的口感,而是消化後在血液偏酸或偏鹼。食物中偏鹼的依次是海帶(但不是紫菜)、蒟蒻、菇類、薑、菠菜、大豆、芋頭、萵苣、紅蘿蔔。水果中以香蕉所含的鉀最多,其次依序為草莓、橘子與蘋果。
最避免的「酸性食物」是米飯、花生、生魚片、與蛋黃等。
請給腫瘤病人吃適當的鹼性食物,並喝水,以免小腸缺水,電解質濃度高,病人無法吸收。無論這條路還要走多久,願你我都有上帝的恩惠。

陽台鐵窗處一定要留逃生口.......




針對桃園惡火疑因鐵窗未設置逃生口,導致一家4口葬身火窟,新北市消防局第一大隊大隊長尚少華呼籲,前後陽台鐵窗處一定要留逃生口,鑰匙應放置在逃生口隨手可取得的地方,並時常檢視是否正常開啟。
尚少華指出,平時住家應在容易起火的廚房或電器使用頻繁處設置滅火器以防安全,而陽台也不應該堆放過多雜物,否則恐成為阻礙逃生的關鍵;火警發生時千萬要冷靜,若能在逃至陽台時,適時將屋內幾扇門關上阻絕火勢延燒,都能增加逃生時間及救護人員的救援時間。 

研究:細菌接觸太少導致英國人過敏增多

我們經常因患過敏癥,鼻涕眼淚一起流,痛苦不堪!英國科學家通過比較研究,發現導致現代人過敏的幾大原因......

2016年10月8日 星期六

健康 美國消費者迫使快餐業停止使用抗生素

【美国消费者迫使快餐业停止使用 #抗生素
如今你到哪家美国快餐店进餐,他们提供的肉类最安全?一份对美国最大的快餐公司的调查显示,消费者可以完全放心的只有两家,大多数受调查公司均不及格,原因是这些快餐公司使用的肉类——无论是鸡、火鸡、猪还是牛肉——都是用抗生素喂养的牲畜家禽。


如今你到哪家美國快餐店進餐,他們提供的肉類最安全?一份對美國最大的快餐公司的調查顯示,消費者可以完全放心的只有兩家,大多數受調查公司均不及格,原因是這些快餐公司使用的肉類——無論是雞、火雞、豬還是牛肉——都是用抗生素餵養的牲畜家禽。
“國家資源保護協會”等五家美國環保、消費者權益、食品安全非政府組織,對全美25家最大的快餐、便餐連鎖店公司進行的第二輪年度問卷調查後發布了一份成績單,得A的只有兩家:Panera Bread和Chipotle;得B的也只有兩家:Subway和Chick-fil-A;快餐巨頭麥當勞得C+;Wendy's、Taco Bell、Pizza Hut和Papa John's剛剛及格。
國家資源保護協會資深呼籲人斯塔什維克說:“還是有很多公司不及格,這些公司要么對減少使用抗生素沒有應對政策,要么政策非常弱,我們認為他們沒有保證他們肉類供應商採取良好安全的抗生素措施。”
肯德基炸雞毫無進展
16家不及格的公司包括Dunkin Donuts,Starbucks、漢堡王、Domino's Pizza,其中全用雞肉的快餐店肯德基炸雞雖與Teco Bell 和Pizza Hut同屬一家母公司,但一年來毫無改進。
斯塔什維克說: “'肯德基炸雞'在我們成績單上是最落後的公司,他們在這方面什麼也沒有做,完全被他的競爭對手拋在後面。”
國家資源保護協會調查報告說,遏制牲畜家禽飼養業濫用抗生素是美國公共衛生的當務之急;而快餐連鎖店是傳播耐藥性的主要渠道之一。
斯塔什維克表示,“飼養場對抗生素的定期使用導致了耐藥性。抗生素殺死較弱的細菌,存活下來的細菌更強,它們離開飼養場進入我們的社區,人食用後會增加人體的耐藥性,因此這是個大問題。”
美國70% 抗生素用在飼養業
現有抗生素無法應對的“超級病菌”已在人體和牲畜中出現。美國每年因抗生素耐藥性感染的人數至少有兩百萬,每年死於這一感染的人數為23000人。
斯塔什維克指出,“在美國,作為人體藥物的抗生素,70%沒有被用來治療人的疾病,而是賣給牲畜家禽飼養商,其中大部分不是被用於治療有病的牲畜,而是定期地日復一日地放進牲畜家禽的食物和飲水中,因為可以幫助它們長得更快,還能預防疾病。”
比癌症還可怕
世界衛生組織說,抗生素耐藥性正使人類逐漸失去治愈感染的能力,它已成為全球公共衛生的主要威脅。世界衛生組織總幹事助理、耐藥性問題代表福田靜二在聯合國指出:“現在可以預見在不遠的2050年,將有更多人死於抗生素耐藥性感染,比現在死於癌症的人還要多。這確實是令人驚訝的比較,意味著每年一千萬人因無法治愈而死於這樣的感染。”
第71屆聯合國大會舉行高級別會議,達成一項政治聲明,承諾制定國家行動計劃,採取應對抗生素耐藥性問題的措施。
聯合國秘書長潘基文說:“如果我們不能快速全面解決這一問題,抗生素耐藥性將使提供高質量全面醫保更困難,甚至不可能。它將損害可持續食品生產。它將危及聯合國可持續發展目標。”
政府規範舉步維艱
美國食品和藥物管理局1977年就承認,抗生素飼養可能對公共衛生構成威脅。紐約州民主黨聯邦女眾議員、眾院唯一的生物學家斯拉特,從2007年開始提出限制抗生素在牲畜飼養中使用的議案,但一直沒有機會在共和黨人控制的小組委員會上獲聽證機會。
斯塔什維克告訴美國之音,在國會,來自農業和製藥業的遊說力量強大。不過她表示,在消費者越來越大的壓力下,今年及格的快餐公司比去年增加了一倍,全美養雞業的40%已經消除或保證消除定期使用人類抗生素,這個行業擺脫抗生素污染的變化正在出現。
民間壓力扮演主角
國家資源保護協會的報導說,消費者驅動的一系列呼籲行動刺激著市場。Subway在30萬消費者準備遞交聯署信前幾天,立刻做出承諾:10年內在其供應鏈內消除所有對抗生素的使用。2016年1月,80個團體敦促Yum! Brands結束使用抗生素的雞肉供應, 6個月後,其旗下的Taco Bell和Pizza Hut採取了改進措施。2016年8月,35萬消費者聯署呼籲,要求也是Yum! Brands旗下的公司肯德基炸雞結束使用人類抗生素的雞肉,一直未採取措施的肯德基現正處於消費者的壓力之下。麥當勞雖然已經做到在美國銷售的雞肉全部是非抗生素的,現在正面臨來自英國一家慈善組織的呼籲,要求其在全球範圍內也這麼做。

2016年10月7日 星期五

Superfund

Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants. It was established by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA).

Superfund - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superfund

2016年10月5日 星期三

the risks hormonal contraceptives carry

"Depression and anxiety from hormonal contraceptives may not be the experience of every woman, but that doesn’t mean it’s not the experience of your friend, your daughter or your partner, and of many women out there, who, in reading about this could have their lives changed for the better."
The medical establishment must stop dismissing the risks hormonal contraceptives carry
THEGUARDIAN.COM|由 HOLLY GRIGG-SPALL 上傳

2016年10月4日 星期二

世衛組織:「清潔空氣,健康未來」

世衛組織早已宣告空污致癌,尤其是肺癌,更尤其是腺癌。以前台灣政府一直矇騙人民說肺癌是吸菸引起的,因此二、三十年來整個衛福部失焦誤導地都只做戒菸而不做空污防制警告和對策,以致25年來女性戒菸率只下降8%,腺癌年年高昇到82%的台灣女性肺癌發生率卻增加148%,而為2012年世界第9名。
今年秋天,有鑑於全世界92%的人口生活在空污威脅健康之中,世衛組織正式宣告「清潔空氣,健康未來」的目標,開始推展「生命呼吸」運動。我們這群關心台灣環保醫療的醫師很高興,在這個秋末的九月,看到魏明谷縣長領導的彰化縣政府基於彰化住民的健康權益,也馬上跟著世衛組織跨出「台灣生命呼吸」運動的第一步,依法宣告台化彰化廠區不符合環保法規要求的工廠停工。
我們醫師從肺癌發生的歷史來看,彰化古早原本就是寶地。三十年前也就是1983年,彰化的肺癌發生率才11人/10萬人口,比台中市15人少29%;而彰…

PEOPLENEWS.TW

張文亮:為什麼病人要吃南瓜?---認識低血鎂

為什麼病人要吃南瓜?---認識低血鎂
我們在醫院時,
許多病人說骨頭會痛,
人躺著就不舒服。
他們心中吶喊著,
請開個特效藥吧。
如果,醫護人員這時說:
「請吃南瓜,或多喝南瓜湯。」
我們聽了會不會稀奇,
南瓜與骨頭有什麼相關呢?
大腸經過手術者,有個很大的需要,就是「鎂」。鎂離子在大腸裡,會分散大腸裡的糜狀物。醫護人員要人清腸,排解殘餘,就給人吃「氧化鎂」,幾小時就產生功效。
鎂在大腸是分散劑,大腸要花許多時間才能吸收到鎂。有大腸時,已經不易吸收到鎂。大腸部分切除後,將更不容易吸收到鎂。會產生「缺鎂」的問題,
鎂與鈣對於骨頭的結構穩定很重要,只是鈣太有名,鎂的重要就被鈣的名聲給遮掩了。缺鎂時骨骼脆弱,不易承受壓力,難以承受人的體重,如同「我的骨頭都脫了節」(詩篇22:14)。
當骨頭疼痛,不要以為病毒在骨頭裡作怪;不要以為過去的脊椎受傷,現在又找上來,也不要一直巴望要給止痛劑。止痛劑的藥效有限,而且用太多,對肝、腎不好。不如起來,吃些南瓜,喝些南瓜粥。
在蔬菜、水果中,南瓜含有最多的鎂,南瓜中含最多鎂的部位,是在南瓜子。南瓜與南瓜子,是大自然的鎂,對人體最好的添加劑。只是南瓜很沉默,我這學化學的人,只好成為南瓜的代言人。
根據美國的調查, 80%的老人,因為消化不好,口味欠佳,有缺鎂的症狀。尤其經過大腸手術後,終日的昏沉也與大腦缺鎂,以致電解質失衡有關。人體至少有300個代謝作用,需要鎂,神經反應、大腦作用、血壓調整、肌肉活動等都要鎂。
南瓜與南瓜子含有許多鎂,此外菠菜、豌豆、無花果、香蕉等也多含鎂。各種奶中,以羊奶所含的鎂最多,這是羊奶適合給老人喝的原因之一。
我多年研究過土壤的鎂,經常分析水中的鎂。鎂對人體這麼有幫助,使我更體會鎂的存在,有其目的,與上帝的祝福。來吃南瓜吧,會使你重新得力喔。

2016年10月3日 星期一

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NPR 和 NPR Morning Edition 都分享了 1 條連結
Last year, the FDA told the maker of Kind bars some of its nut-filled snacks…
NPR.ORG